A number of entries here could be classified as "blind programming", where the people actually inputting a program have no understanding of what the program does. Probably a group of people (programmers and verifiers) had to plan out a step-by-step sequence of what the computer is to do (the program) Someone then, probably with a pen, pencil, or typewriter, wrote a procedure for them (an implementation), and other people had to produce it. Pretty rudimentary indeed, with the people at the top of the design having no idea if it will work until it is all put together.
This would not be an answer without offering another such scheme, perhaps the most commonly implemented of all. Consumer computer magazines of the 70s, 80s, and 90s (e.g. Creative Computing, Compute!, and RUN) would offer their readers programs to type in. These started out as BASIC programs, providing modifiable examples of how to program. To save magazine space, these BASIC programs seldom included any significant comments, and often no structural formatting such as indentation. Still, a lot of us appreciated the working examples.
The next step, clearly less rustic than other answers, and my actual blind programming answer, was for the magazines to offer type-in hex machine code for assembly language programs. Sometimes they didn't use hex, but some extended alpha-numeric sequence encoding the program in a typeable format. Either way, the audience had no idea of program logic, they were just typing in often many pages of arbitrary sequences. Likely, each line of input data would include some sort of checksum value, helping to reduce the likelihood in input mistakes. The magazine also offered either a typable BASIC program or a downloadable program one could get from the magazine's BBS. These would accept the long stream of hex or general alpha-numeric values, verify the data lines during input, and build an executable program. When done, subscribers would store this final program to tape or floppy, and run it. (You could also save partially typed-in programs.)