There's basically two possibilities you may find:
- The ISA card is a fairly trivial piece of hardware, using I/O ports or memory-mapping only. In this case, it is pretty likely an USB-to-ISA or PCI-to-ISA adapter will work. It is, however, also pretty likely a modern PCI-express or USB replacement is cheaper, thus rendering the adapter useless.
- The ISA card is not-so-trivial, might use DMA or even take over the bus completely, as many of the more complicated co-processor cards do. I happen to have a Motorola 68040 card on an ISA slot that does take over the bus completely and talks to the graphics card and disk controllers directly - something like that would be worthy of spending quite some of money for an adapter card - I don't, however, know of any adapter card that would support such a setup.
The above, either too simple to justify the cost of an adapter card, or too complicated that it is really working, is probably the main reason such ISA adapters are no longer available in the market.
Your best possible options are either buying a relatively modern used PC that still has ISA slots (they're still available on eBay, if you're lucky, you'll find a very small and relatively recent Pentium board like they were used for PoS systems, that's what I did), or investing in a more modern setup, you can still buy new ISA-PC setups targetted at the embedded market (at a price, however).