Malvino's approach is pretty much a child of its time. I'm not aware of any modern textbook that will spend much time on 74xx / MSI logic, because anything more complicated than a gate or two will be synthesized into a CPLD / FPGA / ASIC these days. CPU design, too, has become a topic too specialised and complex to be treated in detail in an introductory textbook.
That gives you four options.
If you are looking for a modern book on digital design (but neglecting 74xx logic and CPUs), I've heard good things about Brock J LaMeres' Introduction to Logic Circuits & Logic Design with VHDL and Introduction to Logic Circuits & Logic Design with Verilog (essentially the same book, using the HDL of your choice). Both are currently available for free (here and here, respectively, as of May 31st, 2020) as part of Springer's initiative to provide free textbooks during the Coronavirus outbreak, as is Introduction
to Digital Systems Design by Donzellini et al.
If a modern (or, rather, timeless) introduction to electronics is what you're looking for (with 74xx logic and logic interfacing, but CPUs only treated down to a block diagram level of detail), nothing beats The Art of Electronics, by Horowitz and Hill. The 3rd edition dates from 2015.
If you want a one-to-one alternative to Malvino, you'll have to look for something from rougly the same time period. The first book that comes to mind is the excellent The Art of Digital Design by Prosser and Winkel from 1987, which uses an actual PDP-8 rather than Malvinos SAPs as an example.
Finally, if it's CPU / Computer Architecture you're after, you can take a look at Hennessy and Patterson, Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, now in its fifth edition. Graduate level, lots of information, but definitely from a higher altitude than Malvino (as necessitated by modern CPUs being way more complex).