(For this Answer I assume your question is about LocalTalk interfaces, not AppleTalk as system)
TL;DR: If at all, the network side could be described as EIA-485.
I guess a basic problem is that not only all of these do have similarities, but LocalTalk in fact uses two different interfaces. One between computer and the little box, and the other between these boxes. Equally important, both of them are used in a proprietary way. After all, it's LocalTalk, not either of these standard interfaces.
The Principal Setup is formed by a serial interface from the computer connected to a little box, called 'Connector Module', which in turn on the network side has two sockets for cables to be connected to other connector modules.
On the Computer Side an EIA-422 (V.11) interface is used. But the lines aren't fed into a (digital) comperator within the box, but are simply joined via resistors in the RXD lines and feed to one side of a transformer. So strictly this is no longer an EIA-422 implementation, but something different, vaguely compatible - and only guaranteed to work with an SCC and as implemented by Apple.
On the Network Side signal lines of both connectors (Pin 1/2) were connected to each other, making them two uninterrupted lines, connecting all stations. For signalling the other side of the transformer was put between the lines. This is strictly not daisy-chaining like often stated, but parallel taping - much like on old fashioned yellow cable. When no cable was plugged on either side a 100 Ohm resistor was switched in as termination. All together forming a two wire bus being neither of the named standards.
So far the network side looks similar to EIA-485. Except the signaling levels as well as termination are different. Then again, most EIA-485 implementations differ not only by the protocol, but in implementation as well. It's more of a family of relatives than a plug and play product. Everyone who tries to connect an IBM POS printer to a Profibus controller will know :)