6

I am a big fan of the TV show lost, and I was trying to make the Dharma Initiative logo.

But at certain point I couldn't add new lines of code and the final part of the logo was cut off. I tried to change to HGR2 and worked, but now I can't write below the image.

So, I need the HGR2 $4000 memory (or more) and the mixed text and graphics mode of HGR. And I pretended to do more, write a whole program based on Lost, so I need more than just the logo.

I am programing basic in Apple II+, more specific, in AppleWin emulator.

I know very basic of programing so my code is a mess.

Here's my code:

5 REM DHARMA INITIATIVE LOGO 
10 HOME
15 HGR
20 HPLOT 108,4 TO 170,4 TO 213,47 TO 213,110 to 170,153 TO 107,153 TO 64,110 TO 64,47 TO 107,4
25 HPLOT 108,5 TO 170,5 TO 212,47 TO 212,110 to 170,152 TO 107,152 TO 65,110 TO 65,47 TO 107,5
30 HPLOT 108,6 TO 170,6 TO 211,47 TO 211,110 to 170,151 TO 107,151 TO 66,110 TO 66,47 TO 107,6
31 HPLOT 108,7 TO 170,7 TO 210,47 TO 210,110 to 170,150 TO 107,150 TO 67,110 TO 67,47 TO 107,7
35 HPLOT 108,8 TO 170,8 TO 209,47 TO 209,110 to 170,149 TO 107,149 TO 68,110 TO 68,47 TO 107,8
40 HPLOT 108,9 TO 170,9 TO 208,47 TO 208,110 to 170,148 TO 107,148 TO 69,110 TO 69,47 TO 107,9
45 HPLOT 117,17 TO 160,17 TO 160,18 TO 117,18 TO 117,19 TO 160,19 : HPLOT 159,20 TO 118,20 TO 118,21 TO 159,21 : HPLOT 120,22 TO 157,22
50 HPLOT 167,21 TO 179,33 : HPLOT 179,34 TO 166,21 : HPLOT 166,22 TO 178,34 : HPLOT 178,35 TO 166,23 : HPLOT 165,23 TO 177,35 : HPLOT 177,36 TO 165,24 : HPLOT 165,25 TO 176,36  
55 HPLOT 184,38 TO 196,50 : HPLOT 196,51 TO 183,38 : HPLOT 183,39 TO 195,51 : HPLOT 194,51 TO 182,39 : HPLOT 182,40 TO 194,52 : HPLOT 193,52 TO 181,40 : HPLOT 181,41 TO 192,52  
60 HPLOT 200,57 TO 200,100 TO 199,100 TO 199,57 TO 198,57 TO 198,100 TO 197,99 TO 197,58 TO 196,58 TO 196,99 : HPLOT 195,97 TO 195,60 
65 HPLOT 197,107 TO 167,137 : HPLOT 166,137 TO 197,106 : HPLOT 196,106 TO 166,136 : HPLOT 166,135 TO 195,106 : HPLOT 195,105 TO 165,135 : HPLOT 165,134 TO 194,105 : HPLOT 193,105 TO 165,133
70 HPLOT 159,140 TO 141,140 TO 141,139 TO 159,139 TO 159,138 TO 141,138 TO 141,137 TO 158,137 TO 158,136 TO 141,136 : HPLOT 141,135 TO 156,135
75 HPLOT 135,140 TO 117,140 TO 117,139 TO 135,139 TO 135,138 TO 117,138 TO 118,137 TO 135,137 TO 135,136 TO 118,136 : HPLOT 120,135 TO 135,135 
80 HPLOT 109,136 TO 97,124 : HPLOT 97,123 TO 110,136 : HPLOT 110,135 TO 98,123 : HPLOT 98,122 TO 110,134 : HPLOT 111,134 TO 99,122 : HPLOT 99,121 TO 111,133 : HPLOT 111,132 TO 100,121 
85 HPLOT 92,119 TO 80,107 : HPLOT 80,106 TO 93,119 : HPLOT 93,118 TO 81,106 : HPLOT 82,106 TO 94,118 : HPLOT 94,117 TO 82,105 : HPLOT 83,105 TO 95,117 : HPLOT 95,116 TO 84,105 
90 HPLOT 77,100 TO 77,57 TO 78,57 TO 78,100 TO 79,100 TO 79,57 : HPLOT 80,58 TO 80,99 TO 81,99 TO 81,58 : HPLOT 82,60 TO 82,97    
95 HPLOT 81,50 TO 93,38 : HPLOT 94,38 TO 81,51 : HPLOT 82,51 TO 94,39 : HPLOT 95,39 TO 83,51 : HPLOT 83,52 TO 95,40 : HPLOT 96,40 TO 84,52 : HPLOT 85,52 TO 96,41    
100 HPLOT 98,33 TO 110,21 : HPLOT 111,21 TO 98,34 : HPLOT 99,34 TO 111,22 : HPLOT 111,23 TO 99,35 : HPLOT 100,35 TO 112,23 : HPLOT 112,24 TO 100,36 : HPLOT 101,36 TO 112,25
105 HPLOT 121,26 TO 135,26 TO 135,27 TO 121,27 TO 122,28 TO 135,28 TO 135,29 TO 122,29 TO 123,30 TO 135,30 TO 135,31 TO 123,31  
110 HPLOT 141,26 TO 156,26 TO 156,27 TO 141,27 TO 141,28 TO 155,28 TO 155,29 TO 141,29 TO 141,30 TO 154,30 TO 154,31 TO 141,31
115 HPLOT 164,30 TO 174,40 TO 174,41 TO 163,30 TO 163,31 TO 173,41 TO 173,42 TO 163,32 TO 162,32 TO 172,42 TO 172,43 TO 162,33 TO 162,34 TO 171,43
120 HPLOT 178,44 TO 187,53 TO 187,54 TO 177,44 TO 177,45 TO 186,54 TO 185,54 TO 176,45 TO 176,46 TO 185,55 TO 184,55 TO 175,46 TO 175,47 TO 183,55
125 HPLOT 191,61 TO 191,96 TO 190,96 TO 190,61 : HPLOT 189,62 TO 189,95 TO 188,95 TO 188,62 : HPLOT 187,63 TO 187,94 TO 186,94 TO 186,63
130 HPLOT 187,104 TO 163,128 : HPLOT 162,128 TO 187,103 : HPLOT 186,103 TO 162,127 : HPLOT 162,126 TO 185,103 : HPLOT 185,102 TO 161,126 : HPLOT 161,125 TO 184,102 : HPLOT 183,102 TO 161,124
135 HPLOT 156,131 TO 121,131 TO 121,130 TO 156,130 : HPLOT 155,129 TO 122,129 TO 122,128 TO 155,128 : HPLOT 154,127 TO 123,127 TO 123,126 TO 154,126
140 HPLOT 113,127 TO 103,117 : HPLOT 103,116 TO 114,127 : HPLOT 114,126 TO 104,116 : HPLOT 104,115 TO 114,125 : HPLOT 115,125 TO 105,115 : HPLOT 105,114 TO 115,124 : HPLOT 115,123 TO 106,114 
145 HPLOT 99,113 TO 90,104 : HPLOT 90,103 TO 100,113 : HPLOT 100,112 TO 91,103 : HPLOT 92,103 TO 101,112 : HPLOT 101,111 TO 92,102 : HPLOT 93,102 TO 102,111 : HPLOT 102,110 TO 94,102
150 HPLOT 86,96 TO 86,82 TO 87,82 TO 87,96 : HPLOT 88,95 TO 88,82 TO 89,82 TO 89,95 : HPLOT 90,94 TO 90,82 TO 91,82 TO 91,94 
155 HPLOT 86,76 TO 86,61 TO 87,61 TO 87,76 TO 88,76 TO 88,62 TO 89,62 TO 89,76 TO 90,76 TO 90,63 TO 91,63 TO 91,76
160 HPLOT 89,54 TO 113,30 : HPLOT 114,30 TO 89,55 : HPLOT 90,55 TO 114,31 : HPLOT 114,32 TO 91,55 : HPLOT 91,56 TO 115,32 : HPLOT 115,33 TO 92,56 : HPLOT 93,56 TO 115,34
165 HPLOT 125,34 TO 152,34 TO 152,35 TO 125,35 : HPLOT 126,36 TO 151,36 TO 151,37 TO 126,37 : HPLOT 127,38 TO 150,38 TO 150,39 TO 127,39 
170 HPLOT 160,38 TO 168,46 : HPLOT 168,47 TO 160,39 : HPLOT 160,40 TO 167,47 : HPLOT 167,48 TO 159,40 : HPLOT 159,41 TO 166,48 : HPLOT 166,49 TO 159,42 : HPLOT 159,43 TO 165,49
175 HPLOT 172,50 TO 179,57 : HPLOT 178,57 TO 171,50 : HPLOT 171,51 TO 177,57 : HPLOT 177,58 TO 170,51 : HPLOT 170,52 TO 176,58 : HPLOT 175,58 TO 169,52 : HPLOT 169,53 TO 174,58 
180 HPLOT 183,65 TO 183,76 TO 182,76 TO 182,65 : HPLOT 181,66 TO 181,76 TO 180,76 TO 180,66 : HPLOT 179,67 TO 179,76 TO 178,76 TO 178,67
185 HPLOT 183,82 TO 183,92 TO 182,92 TO 182,82 TO 181,82 TO 181,91 TO 180,91 TO 180,82 TO 179,82 TO 179,90 TO 178,90 TO 178,82
190 HPLOT 179,100 TO 160,119 : HPLOT 160,118 TO 178,100 : HPLOT 177,100 TO 160,117 : HPLOT 159,117 TO 177,99 : HPLOT 176,99 TO 159,116 : HPLOT 159,115 TO 175,99 : HPLOT 174,99 TO 159,114
195 HPLOT 152,123 TO 141,123 TO 141,122 TO 152,122 : HPLOT 151,121 TO 141,121 TO 141,120 TO 151,120 : HPLOT 150,119 TO 141,119 TO 141,118 TO 150,118
200 HPLOT 135,123 TO 125,123 TO 125,122 TO 135,122 TO 135,121 TO 126,121 TO 126,120 TO 135,120 TO 135,119 TO 127,119 TO 127,118 TO 135,118 
205 HPLOT 117,119 TO 98,100 : HPLOT 99,100 TO 117,118 : HPLOT 117,117 TO 100,100 : HPLOT 100,99 TO 118,117 : HPLOT 118,116 TO 101,99 : HPLOT 102,99 TO 118,115 : HPLOT 118,114 TO 103,99
210 HPLOT 94,92 TO 94,82 TO 95,82 TO 95,92 : HPLOT 96,91 TO 96,82 TO 97,82 TO 97,91 : HPLOT 98,90 TO 98,82 TO 99,82 TO 99,90
215 HPLOT 94,76 TO 94,65 TO 95,65 TO 95,76 TO 96,76 TO 96,66 TO 97,66 TO 97,76 TO 98,76 TO 98,67 TO 99,67 TO 99,76
220 HPLOT 97,58 TO 116,39 : HPLOT 116,40 TO 98,58 : HPLOT 99,58 TO 116,41 : HPLOT 117,41 TO 99,59 : HPLOT 100,59 TO 117,42 : HPLOT 117,43 TO 101,59 : HPLOT 102,59 TO 117,44 
225 REM DHARMA LOGO CORE
230 HPLOT 135,46 TO 143,46 : HPLOT 130,47 TO 148,47 : HPLOT 127,48 TO 151,48 : HPLOT 125,49 TO 153,49 : HPLOT 124,50 TO 155,50 : HPLOT 122,51 TO 156,51 : HPLOT 120,52 TO 158,52
235 HPLOT 119,53 TO 160,53 : HPLOT 118,54 TO 160,54 : HPLOT 117,55 TO 161,55 : HPLOT 116,56 TO 162,56 : HPLOT 115,57 TO 163,57 : HPLOT 114,58 TO 164,58 : HPLOT 114,59 TO 164,59
240 HPLOT 113,60 TO 165,60 : HPLOT 112,61 TO 166,61 : HPLOT 112,62 TO 166,62 : HPLOT 111,63 TO 167,63 : HPLOT 111,64 TO 167,64 : HPLOT 110,65 TO 168,65 : HPLOT 109,66 TO 168,66
245 HPLOT 109,67 TO 169,67 : HPLOT 109,68 TO 169,68 : HPLOT 109,69 TO 169,69 : HPLOT 108,70 TO 170,70 : HPLOT 108,71 TO 170,71 : HPLOT 108,72 TO 170,72 : HPLOT 107,73 TO 170,73
250 HPLOT 107,74 TO 112,74 : HPLOT 119,74 TO 122,74 : HPLOT 124,74 TO 127,74 : HPLOT 129,74 TO 133,74 : HPLOT 136,74 TO 140,74 : HPLOT 146,74 TO 171,74
255 HPLOT 107,75 TO 112,75 : HCOLOR = 0 : HPLOT 112,75 : HCOLOR = 3: HPLOT 121,75 : HPLOT 125,75 TO 126,75 : HPLOT 129,75 TO 132,75 : HPLOT 136,75 TO 139,75 : HPLOT 148,75 TO 149,75
256 HPLOT 159,75 TO 162,75 : HPLOT 151,75 TO 156,75 : HPLOT 165,75 TO 171,75 
260 HPLOT 107,76 TO 111,76 : HPLOT 115,76 TO 117,76 : HPLOT 121,76 : HPLOT 125,76 TO 126,76 : HPLOT 129,76 TO 132,76 : HPLOT 137,76 TO 139,76 : HPLOT 142,76 TO 145,76 : HPLOT 148,76 TO 149,76 : HPLOT 152,76 TO 155,76 
265 HPLOT 159,76 TO 161,76 : HPLOT 166,76 TO 171,76
270 HPLOT 107,77 TO 111,77 : HPLOT 115,77 TO 118,77 : HPLOT 121,77 : HPLOT 125,77 TO 126,77 : HPLOT 129,77 TO 131,77 : HPLOT 134,77 TO 135,77 : HPLOT 138,77 TO 139,77 : HPLOT 142,77 TO 144,77 : HPLOT 148,77 TO 149,77 
275 HPLOT 153,77 TO 154,77 : HPLOT 159,77 TO 160,77 : HPLOT 163,77 TO 164,77 : HPLOT 166,77 TO 171,77
280 HPLOT 107,78 TO 111,78 : HPLOT 115,78 TO 118,78 : HPLOT 121,78 : HPLOT 129,78 TO 131,78 : HPLOT 134,78 TO 135,78 : HPLOT 138,78 TO 139,78 : HPLOT 147,78 TO 149,78 : HPLOT 159,78 TO 160,78 : HPLOT 167,78 TO 171,78
285 HPLOT 107,79 TO 111,79 : HPLOT 115,79 TO 117,79 : HPLOT 121,79 : HPLOT 129,79 TO 130,79 : HPLOT 139,79 : HPLOT 146,79 TO 149,79 : HPLOT 152,79 : HPLOT 156,79 : HPLOT 159,79 : HPLOT 167,79 TO 171,79
290 HPLOT 107,80 TO 111,80 : HPLOT 120,80 TO 121,80 : HPLOT 125,80 TO 126,80 : HPLOT 129,80 : HPLOT 139,80 : HPLOT 142,80 TO 143,80 : HPLOT 148,80 TO 149,80 : HPLOT 152,80 TO 153,80 : HPLOT 155,80 TO 156,80 : HPLOT 159,80
295 HPLOT 162,80 TO 165,80 : HPLOT 168,80 TO 171,80 
300 HPLOT 107,81 TO 111,81 : HPLOT 119,81 TO 121,81 : HPLOT 125,81 TO 126,81 : HPLOT 129,81 : HPLOT 133,81 TO 136,81 : HPLOT 139,81 : HPLOT 142,81 TO 144,81 : HPLOT 149,81 : HPLOT 152,81 TO 156,81 : HPLOT 159,81 
305 HPLOT 162,81 TO 165,81 : HPLOT 169,81 TO 171,81 
310 HPLOT 107,82 TO 111,82 : HPLOT 117,82 TO 122,82 : HPLOT 124,82 TO 127,82 : HPLOT 129,82 : HPLOT 132,82 TO 137,82 : HPLOT 139,82 : HPLOT 142,82 TO 145,82 : HPLOT 149,82 : HPLOT 152,82 TO 156,82 : HPLOT 159,82 
315 HPLOT 161,82 TO 166,82 : HPLOT 169,82 TO 171,82 
320 HPLOT 107,83 TO 171,83 : HPLOT 108,84 TO 170,84 : HPLOT 108,85 TO 170,85 : HPLOT 108,86 TO 170,86 : HPLOT 108,87 TO 170,87 : HPLOT 108,88 TO 169,88 : HPLOT 109,89 TO 169,89 : HPLOT 109,90 TO 169,90     
325 HPLOT 109,91 TO 169,91 : HPLOT 110,92 TO 168,92 : HPLOT 110,93 TO 168,93 : HPLOT 111,94 TO 167,94 : HPLOT 112,95 TO 166,95 : HPLOT 112,96 TO 166,96 : HPLOT 113,97 TO 165,97 : HPLOT 114,98 TO 164,98  
330 HPLOT 114,99 TO 164,99 : HPLOT 115,100 TO 163,100 : HPLOT 116,101 TO 162,101 : HPLOT 117,102 TO 162,102 : HPLOT 118,103 TO 160,103 : HPLOT 119,104 TO 159,104 : HPLOT 121,105 TO 157,105  
335 HPLOT 122,106 TO 156,106 : HPLOT 124,107 TO 154,107 : HPLOT 125,108 TO 153,108 : HPLOT 127,109 TO 151,109 : HPLOT 131,110 TO 148,110 : HPLOT 135,111 TO 143,111 
6
  • I assume the question is about the Apple II and you're programming in BASIC? Some more information about what you're doing (and intend to), as well as the encounterd problems could be helpful.
    – Raffzahn
    Oct 22 '19 at 19:30
  • Well, I'd say try solution#1 with HIMEM:8191 first and look if your program still fits. If not, reboot and go for #3 (HGR version) with entering POKE 103,0 : POKE 104,64 before loading/entering above program. that should give you plenty room to continue the way you started. BTW, this is very much the same way as the very first graphical adventure were made on the A2 :))
    – Raffzahn
    Oct 22 '19 at 23:47
  • Nope, HIMEM just show that i am out of memory and POKE i just run and nothing happens. Oct 23 '19 at 1:47
  • Well, the first was expected. Did you keep the sequence with the pokes? i.e. make boot your emulator, then do the pokes by hand (POKE 103,1:POKE 104,64:POKE 16384,0), then enter/load your program - all without any reboot or reset inbetween. THe later is important, as otherwise the poked values get reset.
    – Raffzahn
    Oct 23 '19 at 7:15
  • If your program gets too large, it grows into the memory used when in graphics mode. Oct 23 '19 at 10:42
10

Problem

Here is a picture (to scale) of how memory is being used in units of "pages" (256 bytes) on the Apple 2.

 000000001111111111111111 2222222222222222 3 ...     ... 9
 89ABCDEF0123456789ABCDEF 0123456789ABCDEF 0 ...     ... 6
+------------------------+----------------+--------------+
|Basic:::::::::::::::::::|:::    HGR      |              |
|Program:::::::::::::::::|:::  Page 1     |              |
+------------------------+----------------+--------------+
<-- Low Memory                             High Memory -->

Here is a zoomed-out view of memory (not to scale):

+----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+
|Basic/////:// HGR    :  HGR     : Free     : DOS or   |
|Program///:// Page 1 :  Page 2  : Memory   : BASIC    |
+----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+
$0800      $2000      $4000      $6000      $9600
\_________/                      \__________/
6,143 bytes                      13,823 bytes
 ~5 KB                             ~13 KB

Applesoft BASIC programs starts at memory address $0801 by default. Your program is so HUGE, that is > 5 KB, that it is spilling over into the memory of the HGR graphics page 1. You can get the end address of your program via:

PRINT PEEK(176)*256+PEEK(175)
8398

HGR Page 1 starts 8192 and ends at 16383. Thus When run the HGR command literally "clears" the middle of your program and that is why it crashes at line 330.

i.e.

SYNTAX ERROR AT 330

]LIST 330-
                                    
 330  HPLOT 114,99 TO 164,99: HPLOT     
    115,                               
 65535  h  DATA  DIM  h  DATA           
 1019 b CAN'T CONTINUE  CAN'T CONTINUE  
      SPC( L< ABS L: RND                
 19646                                  
 0  h  h                                

You see "junk" because the bytes of the HGR graphics page are being (re)interpreted as BASIC tokens.

It also has a bug where you leave HCOLOR uninitialized and will use the last HCOLOR set. That is easy to fix by adding HCOLOR=3 at the start.

You can move your program to be above HGR page 1 by telling Applesoft where your program now resides at. You will also need to set the first byte to be zero. By consulting the classic Beagle Bros Peeks and Pokes Chart we see that Zero Page address locations 103 and 103 point to the start of the Applesoft BASIC program.

? PEEK(103)
1
? PEEK(104)
8

That is, $801, is the default start address as previously mentioned.

Solution 1

To tell Applesoft that our programs now starts at $4001 (16385 in decimal) we can execute these commands:

POKE 103,1:POKE 104,64:POKE 16384,0
RUN LOST.BAS

Voilà! Your program now runs without crashing.

Note: We also need to set the byte before the start of the program to zero due to a bug/feature of Applesoft BASIC. For anyone curious the zero page variable TXTTAB in COLD.START

F1B0- 91 67    3550        STA (TXTTAB),Y    FIRST BYTE IN PROGRAM SPACE = 0

Solution 2

If you don't want to mess around with moving your Applesoft program to be "above" the HGR memory to $4000 or $6000 then one solution would to split your program into multiple programs that BLOAD & BSAVE partial image updates. Basically, (pardon the pun), composite the scene layer by layer, the same way artists due in Photoshop, etc.

i.e.

RUN MAKE.LOST.1.BAS
RUN MAKE.LOST.2.BAS
HGR
BLOAD LOST.HGR,A$2000

You can split the program into two like this:

File: MAKE.LOST.1.BAS

NEW
5 REM DHARMA INITIATIVE LOGO 
10 HOME
15 HGR:HCOLOR=3
20 HPLOT 108,4 TO 170,4 TO 213,47 TO 213,110 to 170,153 TO 107,153 TO 64,110 TO 64,47 TO 107,4
25 HPLOT 108,5 TO 170,5 TO 212,47 TO 212,110 to 170,152 TO 107,152 TO 65,110 TO 65,47 TO 107,5
30 HPLOT 108,6 TO 170,6 TO 211,47 TO 211,110 to 170,151 TO 107,151 TO 66,110 TO 66,47 TO 107,6
31 HPLOT 108,7 TO 170,7 TO 210,47 TO 210,110 to 170,150 TO 107,150 TO 67,110 TO 67,47 TO 107,7
35 HPLOT 108,8 TO 170,8 TO 209,47 TO 209,110 to 170,149 TO 107,149 TO 68,110 TO 68,47 TO 107,8
40 HPLOT 108,9 TO 170,9 TO 208,47 TO 208,110 to 170,148 TO 107,148 TO 69,110 TO 69,47 TO 107,9
45 HPLOT 117,17 TO 160,17 TO 160,18 TO 117,18 TO 117,19 TO 160,19 : HPLOT 159,20 TO 118,20 TO 118,21 TO 159,21 : HPLOT 120,22 TO 157,22
50 HPLOT 167,21 TO 179,33 : HPLOT 179,34 TO 166,21 : HPLOT 166,22 TO 178,34 : HPLOT 178,35 TO 166,23 : HPLOT 165,23 TO 177,35 : HPLOT 177,36 TO 165,24 : HPLOT 165,25 TO 176,36  
55 HPLOT 184,38 TO 196,50 : HPLOT 196,51 TO 183,38 : HPLOT 183,39 TO 195,51 : HPLOT 194,51 TO 182,39 : HPLOT 182,40 TO 194,52 : HPLOT 193,52 TO 181,40 : HPLOT 181,41 TO 192,52  
60 HPLOT 200,57 TO 200,100 TO 199,100 TO 199,57 TO 198,57 TO 198,100 TO 197,99 TO 197,58 TO 196,58 TO 196,99 : HPLOT 195,97 TO 195,60 
65 HPLOT 197,107 TO 167,137 : HPLOT 166,137 TO 197,106 : HPLOT 196,106 TO 166,136 : HPLOT 166,135 TO 195,106 : HPLOT 195,105 TO 165,135 : HPLOT 165,134 TO 194,105 : HPLOT 193,105 TO 165,133
70 HPLOT 159,140 TO 141,140 TO 141,139 TO 159,139 TO 159,138 TO 141,138 TO 141,137 TO 158,137 TO 158,136 TO 141,136 : HPLOT 141,135 TO 156,135
75 HPLOT 135,140 TO 117,140 TO 117,139 TO 135,139 TO 135,138 TO 117,138 TO 118,137 TO 135,137 TO 135,136 TO 118,136 : HPLOT 120,135 TO 135,135 
80 HPLOT 109,136 TO 97,124 : HPLOT 97,123 TO 110,136 : HPLOT 110,135 TO 98,123 : HPLOT 98,122 TO 110,134 : HPLOT 111,134 TO 99,122 : HPLOT 99,121 TO 111,133 : HPLOT 111,132 TO 100,121 
85 HPLOT 92,119 TO 80,107 : HPLOT 80,106 TO 93,119 : HPLOT 93,118 TO 81,106 : HPLOT 82,106 TO 94,118 : HPLOT 94,117 TO 82,105 : HPLOT 83,105 TO 95,117 : HPLOT 95,116 TO 84,105 
90 HPLOT 77,100 TO 77,57 TO 78,57 TO 78,100 TO 79,100 TO 79,57 : HPLOT 80,58 TO 80,99 TO 81,99 TO 81,58 : HPLOT 82,60 TO 82,97    
95 HPLOT 81,50 TO 93,38 : HPLOT 94,38 TO 81,51 : HPLOT 82,51 TO 94,39 : HPLOT 95,39 TO 83,51 : HPLOT 83,52 TO 95,40 : HPLOT 96,40 TO 84,52 : HPLOT 85,52 TO 96,41    
100 HPLOT 98,33 TO 110,21 : HPLOT 111,21 TO 98,34 : HPLOT 99,34 TO 111,22 : HPLOT 111,23 TO 99,35 : HPLOT 100,35 TO 112,23 : HPLOT 112,24 TO 100,36 : HPLOT 101,36 TO 112,25
105 HPLOT 121,26 TO 135,26 TO 135,27 TO 121,27 TO 122,28 TO 135,28 TO 135,29 TO 122,29 TO 123,30 TO 135,30 TO 135,31 TO 123,31  
110 HPLOT 141,26 TO 156,26 TO 156,27 TO 141,27 TO 141,28 TO 155,28 TO 155,29 TO 141,29 TO 141,30 TO 154,30 TO 154,31 TO 141,31
115 HPLOT 164,30 TO 174,40 TO 174,41 TO 163,30 TO 163,31 TO 173,41 TO 173,42 TO 163,32 TO 162,32 TO 172,42 TO 172,43 TO 162,33 TO 162,34 TO 171,43
120 HPLOT 178,44 TO 187,53 TO 187,54 TO 177,44 TO 177,45 TO 186,54 TO 185,54 TO 176,45 TO 176,46 TO 185,55 TO 184,55 TO 175,46 TO 175,47 TO 183,55
125 HPLOT 191,61 TO 191,96 TO 190,96 TO 190,61 : HPLOT 189,62 TO 189,95 TO 188,95 TO 188,62 : HPLOT 187,63 TO 187,94 TO 186,94 TO 186,63
130 HPLOT 187,104 TO 163,128 : HPLOT 162,128 TO 187,103 : HPLOT 186,103 TO 162,127 : HPLOT 162,126 TO 185,103 : HPLOT 185,102 TO 161,126 : HPLOT 161,125 TO 184,102 : HPLOT 183,102 TO 161,124
135 HPLOT 156,131 TO 121,131 TO 121,130 TO 156,130 : HPLOT 155,129 TO 122,129 TO 122,128 TO 155,128 : HPLOT 154,127 TO 123,127 TO 123,126 TO 154,126
140 HPLOT 113,127 TO 103,117 : HPLOT 103,116 TO 114,127 : HPLOT 114,126 TO 104,116 : HPLOT 104,115 TO 114,125 : HPLOT 115,125 TO 105,115 : HPLOT 105,114 TO 115,124 : HPLOT 115,123 TO 106,114 
145 HPLOT 99,113 TO 90,104 : HPLOT 90,103 TO 100,113 : HPLOT 100,112 TO 91,103 : HPLOT 92,103 TO 101,112 : HPLOT 101,111 TO 92,102 : HPLOT 93,102 TO 102,111 : HPLOT 102,110 TO 94,102
150 HPLOT 86,96 TO 86,82 TO 87,82 TO 87,96 : HPLOT 88,95 TO 88,82 TO 89,82 TO 89,95 : HPLOT 90,94 TO 90,82 TO 91,82 TO 91,94 
155 HPLOT 86,76 TO 86,61 TO 87,61 TO 87,76 TO 88,76 TO 88,62 TO 89,62 TO 89,76 TO 90,76 TO 90,63 TO 91,63 TO 91,76
160 HPLOT 89,54 TO 113,30 : HPLOT 114,30 TO 89,55 : HPLOT 90,55 TO 114,31 : HPLOT 114,32 TO 91,55 : HPLOT 91,56 TO 115,32 : HPLOT 115,33 TO 92,56 : HPLOT 93,56 TO 115,34
165 HPLOT 125,34 TO 152,34 TO 152,35 TO 125,35 : HPLOT 126,36 TO 151,36 TO 151,37 TO 126,37 : HPLOT 127,38 TO 150,38 TO 150,39 TO 127,39 
170 HPLOT 160,38 TO 168,46 : HPLOT 168,47 TO 160,39 : HPLOT 160,40 TO 167,47 : HPLOT 167,48 TO 159,40 : HPLOT 159,41 TO 166,48 : HPLOT 166,49 TO 159,42 : HPLOT 159,43 TO 165,49
175 HPLOT 172,50 TO 179,57 : HPLOT 178,57 TO 171,50 : HPLOT 171,51 TO 177,57 : HPLOT 177,58 TO 170,51 : HPLOT 170,52 TO 176,58 : HPLOT 175,58 TO 169,52 : HPLOT 169,53 TO 174,58 
180 HPLOT 183,65 TO 183,76 TO 182,76 TO 182,65 : HPLOT 181,66 TO 181,76 TO 180,76 TO 180,66 : HPLOT 179,67 TO 179,76 TO 178,76 TO 178,67
185 HPLOT 183,82 TO 183,92 TO 182,92 TO 182,82 TO 181,82 TO 181,91 TO 180,91 TO 180,82 TO 179,82 TO 179,90 TO 178,90 TO 178,82
190 HPLOT 179,100 TO 160,119 : HPLOT 160,118 TO 178,100 : HPLOT 177,100 TO 160,117 : HPLOT 159,117 TO 177,99 : HPLOT 176,99 TO 159,116 : HPLOT 159,115 TO 175,99 : HPLOT 174,99 TO 159,114
195 HPLOT 152,123 TO 141,123 TO 141,122 TO 152,122 : HPLOT 151,121 TO 141,121 TO 141,120 TO 151,120 : HPLOT 150,119 TO 141,119 TO 141,118 TO 150,118
200 HPLOT 135,123 TO 125,123 TO 125,122 TO 135,122 TO 135,121 TO 126,121 TO 126,120 TO 135,120 TO 135,119 TO 127,119 TO 127,118 TO 135,118 
205 HPLOT 117,119 TO 98,100 : HPLOT 99,100 TO 117,118 : HPLOT 117,117 TO 100,100 : HPLOT 100,99 TO 118,117 : HPLOT 118,116 TO 101,99 : HPLOT 102,99 TO 118,115 : HPLOT 118,114 TO 103,99
210 HPLOT 94,92 TO 94,82 TO 95,82 TO 95,92 : HPLOT 96,91 TO 96,82 TO 97,82 TO 97,91 : HPLOT 98,90 TO 98,82 TO 99,82 TO 99,90
215 HPLOT 94,76 TO 94,65 TO 95,65 TO 95,76 TO 96,76 TO 96,66 TO 97,66 TO 97,76 TO 98,76 TO 98,67 TO 99,67 TO 99,76
220 HPLOT 97,58 TO 116,39 : HPLOT 116,40 TO 98,58 : HPLOT 99,58 TO 116,41 : HPLOT 117,41 TO 99,59 : HPLOT 100,59 TO 117,42 : HPLOT 117,43 TO 101,59 : HPLOT 102,59 TO 117,44 
221 PRINT CHR$(4)"BSAVE LOST.HGR,A$2000,L$1FF8"
222 END
SAVE MAKE.LOST.1.BAS

File: MAKE.LOST.2.BAS

NEW
223 HGR:HCOLOR=3
224 PRINT CHR$(4)"BLOAD LOST.HGR,A$2000"
225 REM DHARMA LOGO CORE
230 HPLOT 135,46 TO 143,46 : HPLOT 130,47 TO 148,47 : HPLOT 127,48 TO 151,48 : HPLOT 125,49 TO 153,49 : HPLOT 124,50 TO 155,50 : HPLOT 122,51 TO 156,51 : HPLOT 120,52 TO 158,52
235 HPLOT 119,53 TO 160,53 : HPLOT 118,54 TO 160,54 : HPLOT 117,55 TO 161,55 : HPLOT 116,56 TO 162,56 : HPLOT 115,57 TO 163,57 : HPLOT 114,58 TO 164,58 : HPLOT 114,59 TO 164,59
240 HPLOT 113,60 TO 165,60 : HPLOT 112,61 TO 166,61 : HPLOT 112,62 TO 166,62 : HPLOT 111,63 TO 167,63 : HPLOT 111,64 TO 167,64 : HPLOT 110,65 TO 168,65 : HPLOT 109,66 TO 168,66
245 HPLOT 109,67 TO 169,67 : HPLOT 109,68 TO 169,68 : HPLOT 109,69 TO 169,69 : HPLOT 108,70 TO 170,70 : HPLOT 108,71 TO 170,71 : HPLOT 108,72 TO 170,72 : HPLOT 107,73 TO 170,73
250 HPLOT 107,74 TO 112,74 : HPLOT 119,74 TO 122,74 : HPLOT 124,74 TO 127,74 : HPLOT 129,74 TO 133,74 : HPLOT 136,74 TO 140,74 : HPLOT 146,74 TO 171,74
255 HPLOT 107,75 TO 112,75 : HCOLOR = 0 : HPLOT 112,75 : HCOLOR = 3: HPLOT 121,75 : HPLOT 125,75 TO 126,75 : HPLOT 129,75 TO 132,75 : HPLOT 136,75 TO 139,75 : HPLOT 148,75 TO 149,75
256 HPLOT 159,75 TO 162,75 : HPLOT 151,75 TO 156,75 : HPLOT 165,75 TO 171,75 
260 HPLOT 107,76 TO 111,76 : HPLOT 115,76 TO 117,76 : HPLOT 121,76 : HPLOT 125,76 TO 126,76 : HPLOT 129,76 TO 132,76 : HPLOT 137,76 TO 139,76 : HPLOT 142,76 TO 145,76 : HPLOT 148,76 TO 149,76 : HPLOT 152,76 TO 155,76 
265 HPLOT 159,76 TO 161,76 : HPLOT 166,76 TO 171,76
270 HPLOT 107,77 TO 111,77 : HPLOT 115,77 TO 118,77 : HPLOT 121,77 : HPLOT 125,77 TO 126,77 : HPLOT 129,77 TO 131,77 : HPLOT 134,77 TO 135,77 : HPLOT 138,77 TO 139,77 : HPLOT 142,77 TO 144,77 : HPLOT 148,77 TO 149,77 
275 HPLOT 153,77 TO 154,77 : HPLOT 159,77 TO 160,77 : HPLOT 163,77 TO 164,77 : HPLOT 166,77 TO 171,77
280 HPLOT 107,78 TO 111,78 : HPLOT 115,78 TO 118,78 : HPLOT 121,78 : HPLOT 129,78 TO 131,78 : HPLOT 134,78 TO 135,78 : HPLOT 138,78 TO 139,78 : HPLOT 147,78 TO 149,78 : HPLOT 159,78 TO 160,78 : HPLOT 167,78 TO 171,78
285 HPLOT 107,79 TO 111,79 : HPLOT 115,79 TO 117,79 : HPLOT 121,79 : HPLOT 129,79 TO 130,79 : HPLOT 139,79 : HPLOT 146,79 TO 149,79 : HPLOT 152,79 : HPLOT 156,79 : HPLOT 159,79 : HPLOT 167,79 TO 171,79
290 HPLOT 107,80 TO 111,80 : HPLOT 120,80 TO 121,80 : HPLOT 125,80 TO 126,80 : HPLOT 129,80 : HPLOT 139,80 : HPLOT 142,80 TO 143,80 : HPLOT 148,80 TO 149,80 : HPLOT 152,80 TO 153,80 : HPLOT 155,80 TO 156,80 : HPLOT 159,80
295 HPLOT 162,80 TO 165,80 : HPLOT 168,80 TO 171,80 
300 HPLOT 107,81 TO 111,81 : HPLOT 119,81 TO 121,81 : HPLOT 125,81 TO 126,81 : HPLOT 129,81 : HPLOT 133,81 TO 136,81 : HPLOT 139,81 : HPLOT 142,81 TO 144,81 : HPLOT 149,81 : HPLOT 152,81 TO 156,81 : HPLOT 159,81 
305 HPLOT 162,81 TO 165,81 : HPLOT 169,81 TO 171,81 
310 HPLOT 107,82 TO 111,82 : HPLOT 117,82 TO 122,82 : HPLOT 124,82 TO 127,82 : HPLOT 129,82 : HPLOT 132,82 TO 137,82 : HPLOT 139,82 : HPLOT 142,82 TO 145,82 : HPLOT 149,82 : HPLOT 152,82 TO 156,82 : HPLOT 159,82 
315 HPLOT 161,82 TO 166,82 : HPLOT 169,82 TO 171,82 
320 HPLOT 107,83 TO 171,83 : HPLOT 108,84 TO 170,84 : HPLOT 108,85 TO 170,85 : HPLOT 108,86 TO 170,86 : HPLOT 108,87 TO 170,87 : HPLOT 108,88 TO 169,88 : HPLOT 109,89 TO 169,89 : HPLOT 109,90 TO 169,90     
325 HPLOT 109,91 TO 169,91 : HPLOT 110,92 TO 168,92 : HPLOT 110,93 TO 168,93 : HPLOT 111,94 TO 167,94 : HPLOT 112,95 TO 166,95 : HPLOT 112,96 TO 166,96 : HPLOT 113,97 TO 165,97 : HPLOT 114,98 TO 164,98  
330 HPLOT 114,99 TO 164,99 : HPLOT 115,100 TO 163,100 : HPLOT 116,101 TO 162,101 : HPLOT 117,102 TO 162,102 : HPLOT 118,103 TO 160,103 : HPLOT 119,104 TO 159,104 : HPLOT 121,105 TO 157,105  
335 HPLOT 122,106 TO 156,106 : HPLOT 124,107 TO 154,107 : HPLOT 125,108 TO 153,108 : HPLOT 127,109 TO 151,109 : HPLOT 131,110 TO 148,110 : HPLOT 135,111 TO 143,111 
339 PRINT CHR$(4)"BSAVE LOST.HGR,A$2000,L$1FF8"
SAVE MAKE.LOST.2.BAS

Sooner or later you WILL run out of memory. That leads us to the next solution.

Solution 3

If we take a step back and apply a Data-Orientated Design methodology, of which Data-driven programming is a subset of, we see that the root problem is ASCII is horribly inefficient at storing numeric data! A single coordinate takes up anywhere from 3 to 4 bytes!!

e.g.

HPLOT 123  ,   23 TO
      \_/ \_/ \_/ \_/
       3   1   2   1  Bytes

Total bytes for a pair: ~8 bytes (depending if the Y coordinate has 2 or 3 digits.)

How do we compress this data? Should we use delta compression? LZ4?

The first rule of DOD is:

KNOW THY DATA

By examining all the X and Y coordinates we see that each number is less then 256 due to the Apple's HGR screen being 280 x 192 and us never plotting beyond column 256. This means that we could simply store each number in binary as an 8-bit number.

Next, let's convert this into a data-driven program:

READ and DATA

Originally, I left converting lines 225-335 of the original program ("DHARMA LOGO CORE") as an exercise for the reader but due to some people being too lazy I've included walking through an example of how to convert this section to DATA statements:

First, split all the HPLOT statements so they are on their own line.

230 HPLOT 135,46 TO 143,46 :
    HPLOT 130,47 TO 148,47 :
    HPLOT 127,48 TO 151,48 :
    HPLOT 125,49 TO 153,49 :
    HPLOT 124,50 TO 155,50 :
    HPLOT 122,51 TO 156,51 :
    HPLOT 120,52 TO 158,52
:
335 HPLOT 122,106 TO 156,106 :
    HPLOT 124,107 TO 154,107 :
    HPLOT 125,108 TO 153,108 :
    HPLOT 127,109 TO 151,109 :
    HPLOT 131,110 TO 148,110 :
    HPLOT 135,111 TO 143,111 

Second, we notice that we drawing from Y=46 to Y=111. After we draw each line we can increment Y.

Third, we notice there are three groupings:

  • Semi-circle above "DHARMA"
  • The text "DHARMA"
  • Semi-circle below "DHARMA"

Fourth, drawing the text "DHARMA" sometimes plots single pixels. If we convert these edge cases into the more convenient form of HPLOT X,Y TO X,Y then the entire part 2 will a consistent format. We need these extra drawing routines:

  • Draw N lines. For each line draw from X1,Y to X2,Y and increment Y.
  • Draw M segments. For each segment draw from X1,Y to X2,Y. Afterwards increment Y.

That is, we'll have these two lines:

15 FOR J=1 TO N:READ X1,X2:HPLOT X1,Y TO X2,Y:Y=Y+1:NEXT:RETURN
16 FOR J=1 TO M:READ X1,X2:HPLOT X1,Y TO X2,Y:NEXT:Y=Y+1:RETURN

Next, we notice there are:

  • 28 lines above "DHARMA"
  • 9 lines for "DHARMA"
  • 29 lines below "DHARMA"

To draw the DHARMA circle all we need is:

230 Y=46:N=28:GOSUB 15:FOR K=1 TO 9:READ M:GOSUB 16:NEXT:N=29:GOSUB 15:END

That leaves the data.

For the top of the circle we can store pairs of {start,end} X coordinates like this:

DATA 135,143,130,148,127,151,125,153,124,155,122,156,120,158,119,160,118,160,117,161,116,162,115,163,114,164,114,164,113,165,112,166,112,166,111,167,111,167,110,168,109,168,109,169,109,169,109,169,108,170,108,170,108,170,107,170

For the bottom of the circle we can again store pairs of X coordinates:

DATA 107,171,108,170,108,170,108,170,108,170,108,169,109,169,109,169,109,169,110,168,110,168,111,167,112,166,112,166,113,165,114,164,114,164,115,163,116,162,117,162,118,160,119,159,121,157,122,156,124,154,125,153,127,151,131,148,135,143

For the middle of the circle, the 9 scanlines that draw "DHARMA", each scanlines has a varying number of segments. Let's convert line 255 since it is the trickiest. Splitting it so that we have one HPLOT per line:

255 HPLOT 107,75 TO 112,75 : 
    HCOLOR = 0 : HPLOT 112,75 :
    HCOLOR = 3             :
    HPLOT 121,75           :
    HPLOT 125,75 TO 126,75 :
    HPLOT 129,75 TO 132,75 :
    HPLOT 136,75 TO 139,75 :
    HPLOT 148,75 TO 149,75

We can get rid of resetting the color to white by removing HCOLOR=3:

255 HPLOT 107,75 TO 112,75 : 
    HCOLOR = 0 : HPLOT 112,75 :
    HPLOT 121,75           :
    HPLOT 125,75 TO 126,75 :
    HPLOT 129,75 TO 132,75 :
    HPLOT 136,75 TO 139,75 :
    HPLOT 148,75 TO 149,75

We can also convert that HPLOT 121,75 to be of the form HPLOT X1,Y to X2,Y:

255 HPLOT 107,75 TO 112,75 : 
    HCOLOR = 0 : HPLOT 112,75 :
    HPLOT 121,75 TO 121,75 :
    HPLOT 125,75 TO 126,75 :
    HPLOT 129,75 TO 132,75 :
    HPLOT 136,75 TO 139,75 :
    HPLOT 148,75 TO 149,75

Instead of erasing that single pixel at 112,75 we can shorten the line segments on either side.

  • We don't plot any pixels at 113 so we are good here.
  • Our line went from 107 to 112 but since we erase 112 we can snip the end so it goes from 107 to 111 instead.

This is what our line 255 looks like:

255 HPLOT 107,75 TO 111,75
    HPLOT 121,75 to 121,75
    HPLOT 125,75 TO 126,75
    HPLOT 129,75 TO 132,75
    HPLOT 136,75 TO 139,75
    HPLOT 148,75 TO 149,75
    HPLOT 159,75 TO 162,75
    HPLOT 151,75 TO 156,75
    HPLOT 165,75 TO 171,75 

What's left is to count the number of segments for each of the "DHARMA" lines.

* 6 on line 75
* 9 on line 76
* 11 on line 77
* 13 on line 78
* 9 on line 79
* 10 on line 80
* 12 on line 81
* 12 on line 82
* 12 on line 83

Putting it all together:

NEW
  0 HGR:HCOLOR=3:GOTO 20
  1 FOR J=1 TO N:READ X,Y:HPLOT X,Y:FOR I=1 TO M:READ X,Y:HPLOT TO X,Y:NEXT:NEXT:RETURN
  2 M= 1:GOTO 1
  4 M= 3:GOTO 1
  5 REM DHARMA INITIATIVE LOGO 
  6 M= 5:GOTO 1
  9 M= 8:GOTO 1
 10 M= 9:N=1:GOTO 1
 12 M=11:N=1:GOTO 1
 14 M=13:N=1:GOTO 1
 15 FOR J=1 TO N:READ X1,X2:HPLOT X1,Z TO X2,Z:Z=Z+1:NEXT:RETURN
 16 FOR J=1 TO M:READ X1,X2:HPLOT X1,Z TO X2,Z:NEXT:Z=Z+1:RETURN
 20 N= 6:GOSUB  9:DATA108,4,170,4,213,47,213,110,170,153,107,153,64,110,64,47,107,4,108,5,170,5,212,47,212,110,170,152,107,152,65,110,65,47,107,5
 30               DATA108,6,170,6,211,47,211,110,170,151,107,151,66,110,66,47,107,6,108,7,170,7,210,47,210,110,170,150,107,150,67,110,67,47,107,7
 35               DATA108,8,170,8,209,47,209,110,170,149,107,149,68,110,68,47,107,8,108,9,170,9,208,47,208,110,170,148,107,148,69,110,69,47,107,9

 45 N= 1:GOSUB  6:DATA117,17,160,17,160,18,117,18,117,19,160,19 
 46 N= 1:GOSUB  4:DATA159,20,118,20,118,21,159,21
 47 N=15:GOSUB  2:DATA120,22,157,22,167,21,179,33,179,34,166,21,166,22,178,34,178,35,166,23,165,23,177,35,177,36,165,24,165,25,176,36
 55               DATA184,38,196,50,196,51,183,38,183,39,195,51,194,51,182,39,182,40,194,52,193,52,181,40,181,41,192,52  
 60      GOSUB 10:DATA200,57,200,100,199,100,199,57,198,57,198,100,197,99,197,58,196,58,196,99
 61 N= 8:GOSUB  2:DATA195,97,195,60
 65               DATA197,107,167,137,166,137,197,106,196,106,166,136,166,135,195,106,195,105,165,135,165,134,194,105,193,105,165,133
 70      GOSUB 10:DATA159,140,141,140,141,139,159,139,159,138,141,138,141,137,158,137,158,136,141,136
 71 N= 1:GOSUB  2:DATA141,135,156,135
 75      GOSUB 10:DATA135,140,117,140,117,139,135,139,135,138,117,138,118,137,135,137,135,136,118,136
 76 N=15:GOSUB  2:DATA120,135,135,135
 80               DATA109,136,97,124,97,123,110,136,110,135,98,123,98,122,110,134,111,134,99,122,99,121,111,133,111,132,100,121 
 85               DATA92,119,80,107,80,106,93,119,93,118,81,106,82,106,94,118,94,117,82,105,83,105,95,117,95,116,84,105 
 90 N= 1:GOSUB  6:DATA77,100,77,57,78,57,78,100,79,100,79,57
 91 N= 1:GOSUB  4:DATA80,58,80,99,81,99,81,58
 92 N=15:GOSUB  2:DATA82,60,82,97,81,50,93,38,94,38,81,51,82,51,94,39,95,39,83,51,83,52,95,40,96,40,84,52,85,52,96,41    
100               DATA98,33,110,21,111,21,98,34,99,34,111,22,111,23,99,35,100,35,112,23,112,24,100,36,101,36,112,25

105      GOSUB 12:DATA121,26,135,26,135,27,121,27,122,28,135,28,135,29,122,29,123,30,135,30,135,31,123,31  
110      GOSUB 12:DATA141,26,156,26,156,27,141,27,141,28,155,28,155,29,141,29,141,30,154,30,154,31,141,31
115      GOSUB 14:DATA164,30,174,40,174,41,163,30,163,31,173,41,173,42,163,32,162,32,172,42,172,43,162,33,162,34,171,43
120      GOSUB 14:DATA178,44,187,53,187,54,177,44,177,45,186,54,185,54,176,45,176,46,185,55,184,55,175,46,175,47,183,55
125 N= 3:GOSUB  4:DATA191,61,191,96,190,96,190,61,189,62,189,95,188,95,188,62,187,63,187,94,186,94,186,63
130 N= 7:GOSUB  2:DATA187,104,163,128,162,128,187,103,186,103,162,127,162,126,185,103,185,102,161,126,161,125,184,102,183,102,161,124
135 N= 3:GOSUB  4:DATA156,131,121,131,121,130,156,130,155,129,122,129,122,128,155,128,154,127,123,127,123,126,154,126
140 N=14:GOSUB  2:DATA113,127,103,117,103,116,114,127,114,126,104,116,104,115,114,125,115,125,105,115,105,114,115,124,115,123,106,114 
145               DATA99,113,90,104,90,103,100,113,100,112,91,103,92,103,101,112,101,111,92,102,93,102,102,111,102,110,94,102
150 N= 3:GOSUB  4:DATA86,96,86,82,87,82,87,96,88,95,88,82,89,82,89,95,90,94,90,82,91,82,91,94 
155      GOSUB 12:DATA86,76,86,61,87,61,87,76,88,76,88,62,89,62,89,76,90,76,90,63,91,63,91,76
160 N= 7:GOSUB  2:DATA89,54,113,30,114,30,89,55,90,55,114,31,114,32,91,55,91,56,115,32,115,33,92,56,93,56,115,34

165 N= 3:GOSUB  4:DATA125,34,152,34,152,35,125,35,126,36,151,36,151,37,126,37,127,38,150,38,150,39,127,39
170 N=14:GOSUB  2:DATA160,38,168,46,168,47,160,39,160,40,167,47,167,48,159,40,159,41,166,48,166,49,159,42,159,43,165,49
175               DATA172,50,179,57,178,57,171,50,171,51,177,57,177,58,170,51,170,52,176,58,175,58,169,52,169,53,174,58 
180 N= 3:GOSUB  4:DATA183,65,183,76,182,76,182,65,181,66,181,76,180,76,180,66,179,67,179,76,178,76,178,67
185      GOSUB 12:DATA183,82,183,92,182,92,182,82,181,82,181,91,180,91,180,82,179,82,179,90,178,90,178,82
190 N= 7:GOSUB  2:DATA179,100,160,119,160,118,178,100,177,100,160,117,159,117,177,99,176,99,159,116,159,115,175,99,174,99,159,114
195 N= 3:GOSUB  4:DATA152,123,141,123,141,122,152,122,151,121,141,121,141,120,151,120,150,119,141,119,141,118,150,118
200      GOSUB 12:DATA135,123,125,123,125,122,135,122,135,121,126,121,126,120,135,120,135,119,127,119,127,118,135,118
205 N= 7:GOSUB  2:DATA117,119,98,100,99,100,117,118,117,117,100,100,100,99,118,117,118,116,101,99,102,99,118,115,118,114,103,99
210 N= 3:GOSUB  4:DATA94,92,94,82,95,82,95,92,96,91,96,82,97,82,97,91,98,90,98,82,99,82,99,90
215      GOSUB 12:DATA94,76,94,65,95,65,95,76,96,76,96,66,97,66,97,76,98,76,98,67,99,67,99,76
220 N= 7:GOSUB  2:DATA97,58,116,39,116,40,98,58,99,58,116,41,117,41,99,59,100,59,117,42,117,43,101,59,102,59,117,44 

230 Z=46:N=28:GOSUB 15:FOR K=1 TO 9:READ M:GOSUB 16:NEXT:N=29:GOSUB 15
240 DATA135,143,130,148,127,151,125,153,124,155,122,156,120,158,119,160,118,160,117,161,116,162,115,163,114,164,114,164,113,165,112,166,112,166,111,167,111,167,110,168,109,168,109,169,109,169,109,169,108,170,108,170,108,170,107,170
250 DATA 6,107,112,119,122,124,127,129,133,136,140,146,171
260 DATA 9,107,111,121,121,125,126,129,132,136,139,148,149,159,162,151,156,165,171
270 DATA11,107,111,115,117,121,121,125,126,129,132,137,139,142,145,148,149,152,155,159,161,166,171
280 DATA13,107,111,115,118,121,121,125,126,129,131,134,135,138,139,142,144,148,149,153,154,159,160,163,164,166,171
290 DATA 9,107,111,115,118,121,121,129,131,134,135,138,139,147,149,159,160,167,171
300 DATA10,107,111,115,117,121,121,129,130,139,139,146,149,152,152,156,156,159,159,167,171
310 DATA12,107,111,120,121,125,126,129,129,139,139,142,143,148,149,152,153,155,156,159,159,162,165,168,171
320 DATA12,107,111,119,121,125,126,129,129,133,136,139,139,142,144,149,149,152,156,159,159,162,165,169,171
330 DATA12,107,111,117,122,124,127,129,129,132,137,139,139,142,145,149,149,152,156,159,159,161,166,169,171
340DATA107,171,108,170,108,170,108,170,108,170,108,169,109,169,109,169,109,169,110,168,110,168,111,167,112,166,112,166,113,165,114,164,114,164,115,163,116,162,117,162,118,160,119,159,121,157,122,156,124,154,125,153,127,151,131,148,135,143

SAVE LOST.DATA.BAS

Our program now ends at:

PRINT PEEK(176)*256+PEEK(175)
7793

Which just ends before HGR Page 1 and we can safely use the HGR.

Encoder

After we run it to verify it produces the same output we can trivially convert this into an "encoder". We'll read the raw data and poke the binary numbers into memory starting at HGR page 2.

We'll also need to store a 2-byte header:

M = number of X,Y pairs to HPLOT TO, and
N = number of "lines"

Lastly, we'll mark the end-of-data (First Half) with a double zero sentinel. Then when we draw the circle we'll re-use the header to store the number of segments.

Due to the data-driven nature we only need to make a few small changes to convert it to an encoder:

LOAD LOST.DATA.BAS
  0 A=16384:P=A:GOTO 20
  1 X=M:Y=N:GOSUB 3:FOR J=1 TO N:READ X,Y:GOSUB 3:FOR I=1 TO M:READ X,Y:GOSUB 3:NEXT:NEXT:RETURN
  3 POKE P,X:POKE P+1,Y:P=P+2:PRINT ".";:RETURN
 15 GOSUB 3:FOR J=1 TO N:READ X,Y:GOSUB 3:Z=Z+1:NEXT:RETURN
 16 GOSUB 3:FOR J=1 TO M:READ X,Y:GOSUB 3:NEXT:Z=Z+1:RETURN
230 X=0:Y=0:GOSUB 3:N=28:Z=46:X=N:Y=Z:GOSUB 15:FOR K=1 TO 9:READ M:X=M:Y=Z:GOSUB 16:NEXT:N=29:X=N:Y=Z:GOSUB 15
350 PRINT CHR$(4)"BSAVE LOST.BIN,A";A;",L";(P-A):PRINT:PRINT "SAVED: LOST.BIN": PRINT "SIZE: ";(P-A)
SAVE LOST.ENCODE.BAS

Decoder

Our decoder becomes extremely trivial since are just replaying back HPLOT commands. The other good news is that we keep the spiral drawing effect! (That was an assumption that was never originally specified in the question.)

NEW
  0 A=16384:HGR:HCOLOR=3:GOTO 20
  1 X=PEEK(A):Y=PEEK(A+1):A=A+2:RETURN
 15 GOSUB 1:N=X:Z=Y:FOR J=1 TO N:GOSUB 1:HPLOT X,Z TO Y,Z:Z=Z+1:NEXT:RETURN
 16 GOSUB 1:M=X:    FOR J=1 TO M:GOSUB 1:HPLOT X,Z TO Y,Z:NEXT:Z=Z+1:RETURN
 20 PRINT CHR$(4)"BLOAD LOST.BIN,A";A
 30 GOSUB 1:IF X = 0 THEN 50
 40 M=X:N=Y:FOR J=1 TO N:GOSUB 1:HPLOT X,Y:FOR I=1 TO M:GOSUB 1:HPLOT TO X,Y:NEXT:NEXT:GOTO 30
 50 GOSUB 15:FOR K=1 TO 9:GOSUB 16:NEXT:GOSUB 15
SAVE LOST.DECODE.BAS

Results

If we SAVE lines 5-220 of the original program as LOST.1.BAS then under DOS 3.3 we notice it takes a whopping 17 sectors.

Our binary file LOST.BIN takes 6 sectors while our LOST.DECODE.BAS takes 2 sectors.

That's a savings of around 100*(17-8)/17 = 52% smaller!

Conclusions

  • Do NOT use ASCII to store numeric data. It significantly bloats the data.
  • Be mindful of the platform you are developing on.
  • Analyze the data. Look at how the data is being used.
  • Convert redundant code into data.

NOTE: With AppleWin you can use Shift-Insert to paste text into the emulator.

8
  • I realy can't understand what i am doing wrong, i realy want the first solution because is what i looking for, more than $2000 memory for HGR, but i can't do it. The second solution was my best chance, you even edit my program and put it to i just select and paste to the emulator, but in the last line SAVE MAKE.LOST.1.BAS shows syntax error, for both. Oct 23 '19 at 14:48
  • Are you booting DOS 3.3 or ProDOS? You will need an Disk Operating System to save the programs to disk. Oct 23 '19 at 15:30
  • I tried with a disk, but it showed error #8 Oct 23 '19 at 15:45
  • And i think it is DOS 3.3 Oct 23 '19 at 15:58
  • 1
    @Michaelangel007 A valiant attempt and good explanation, but as I commented on Raffzahn's answer I expected he wanted to keep the animated effect of drawing the logo. I've added a simple answer too. Oct 24 '19 at 1:06
3

(Warning, all from Memory without checking any manual)

AFAI read the question, you're using an Apple II with highres graphics from BASIC and did run into memory problems - usually by interference of BASIC memory management with the graphics location. You 'solved' it (well, not rally) by moving to page two, but now you can't write any text.


Problem #1 Text with HGR2

Your idea to use HGR2 with text is by default incompatible with BASIC, as highres page 2 uses text page 2 for display. This is hard coded.

Text page 2 starts at $0800. When adapting Applesoft, Apple did not reserve this area (like with $400..7FF for page 1), but used it for program storage. In other words, BASIC code starts at $800.

To make text page 2 usable (and thus HGR2 with text), the BASIC start has to be moved up before any program is entered or loaded. This can be done by poking the new start value into the BASIC start address at $67/$68. A good new value would be $0C03. So POKE 103,3 : POKE 104,12 will do the trick. As said, this has to be done before a BASIC program is loaded. Either by hand, or by using a batch file (under DOS).

Also, for activating text page you may need to toggle some additional softswitches - which depends on your program structure.


Problem #2 Use of BASIC and HGR in general

(Something you already have stumbled in and 'seemingly' resolved by using HGR2 - except, that only postponed the problem)

One of the issues of the Apple II design is that graphics memory is located right in the middle of its RAM at $2000 for HGR1 and $4000 for HGR2. Basic programs start usually at $800 and grow upward when editing, while during program execution variables grow from Program End upward as well as downward from RAM end. To solve coexistence of BASIC and graphics screen three possible solutions exist:

Solutions:

  1. Restrict BASIC to use only RAM until the first (or second) highres page starts.

    • When using page 1 execute HIMEM:8191. This leaves 6 KiB for BASIC program and variables.
    • When using page 2 execute HIMEM:16383. Now 14 KiB are available for BASIC program and variables
  2. Using the the RAM before the highres page for BASIC and everything thereafter for variables

    • When using page 1 LOWMEM: 16384 will give 6 KiB to the BASIC program and up to 32 KiB to variables (*1)
    • When using page 2 LOWMEM: 24576 will give 14 KiB to the BASIC program and up to 24 KiB to variables.
  3. Moving all Basic and Variables beyond the highres pages. This is done by poking the new start value into the BASIC start address in $67/$68 _ before_ any program is loaded or written.

    • When using page 1 POKE 103,0 : POKE 104,64 will leave 32 KiB for BASIC program and variables
    • Then using page 2 POKE 103,0 : POKE 104,96 will leave 24 KiB for BASIC program and variables.

Caveats:

  • HIMEM:and LOWMEM: can be used within a program, but invalidate all variables, so it should be done right at the program start.
  • Using the LOWMEM solution (#2), will offer the most amount of RAM, but there is no protection against the BASIC code growing into either graphics page, an thus destruct itself when executing graphics commands (*2).
  • Adding a check is possible, but rather complicated, as there is no pointer to check.
  • Poking the programm start address (#3) has to be done before any program is loaded.

Conclusion:

Solution #1 is the most simple but offers the least memory. Solution #2 carries a risk of failure but offers the most memory in total. Solution #3 offers the most continuous RAM, making coding easy, but needs manual preset

Recomendation

I'd start with solution #1 and page one, as it's the most simple. If this really doesn't work out, try the same with HGR2 (*3). Solution #3 is simple a well, and maybe the most fitting, but requires to be run from a batch file.

Either way, you need to know what you want to do and what your requirements are.


P.S.: If you only want to load a logo, use some Apple II drawing program to create it and simply load it from disk, instead of drawing it from BASIC. It'll only need a simple

PRINT CHR$(4)"BLOAD LOGO,A$4000"

from BASIC. No code wasted for generation and quite fast drawn as well. In fact, this can be hidden by only switching to highres after drawing with the appropriate softswitches.


*1 - Usually less if some DOS is loaded.

*2 - As so often, it's a great idea to save any new version before runing - more so if it may be self-destructing.

*3 - keep in mind, that HGR2 can not be used in conjunction with text, unless the BASIC start is moved as with solution #3

5
  • Thanks! You explained a lot more than i was expecting. But there's one problem, me. I realy don't understand nothing about programing in basic, only the basic, so i will give my code and you can explain better to me. Oct 22 '19 at 21:14
  • Another trick is to load an "intro" program starting at $0801, set the start-of-program address to $4001 or $6001, load the "main" program, BLOAD an intro screen into hires page 1, set start-of-program back to $0801, and save. If the intro program does some intro stuff, sets the start of program address to $4001 or $6001, and then does "RUN", the combined program can be fetched via ordinary "load".
    – supercat
    Oct 22 '19 at 21:53
  • @supercat: I think he wants to keep the animated look of drawing the symbol. Of course, the program could be written more efficiently using a DATA statement and some logic to READ that and HPLOT it. Also, this question is more suited to a forum, which is what I suggested to him. See this AppleWin issue. Oct 22 '19 at 22:36
  • 1
    If you change the load address, don't forget to set the initial byte to zero, e.g. POKE 103,1:POKE 104,96:POKE 24576,0. Otherwise you'll get a syntax error if there's a nonzero value there.
    – fadden
    Oct 23 '19 at 5:09
  • @NickWestgate: The trick I was suggesting is one which I've seen used elsewhere, and it avoids the needs to change the start address before loading a program. One wouldn't have to put anything useful in memory $0801-$3FFF before setting the start address, but since that 14K of data will be needed to load from disk, one may as well use it for something.
    – supercat
    Oct 23 '19 at 14:50
3

Here is a simple way for you to get your program working and continue working on it (for now).

Save your existing DHARMA INITIATIVE LOGO program to disk as a file called MAIN.

SAVE MAIN

Now type this program and save it as START:

10 POKE 103,1:POKE 104,64:POKE 16384,0
20 PRINT CHR$(4);"RUN MAIN"
SAVE START

When you run START it will set up and run the MAIN program at $4000, above HGR1.

RUN START

For now this will get you going, but you'll run into problems again when your program gets big enough to hit DOS up around $9600. Your best bet would be to have multiple programs and RUN them, but under DOS you'll lose the values of variables. You can either use certain utilities to help, or you could use PRODOS and use the CHAIN command. Anyway, now you have time to research those.

1

Just to add to the other answers - a somewhat odd solution, but doable for simple (but longish) "drawing" programs such as this, is to use Wozniak's old "Integer BASIC" (aka "Apple BASIC") instead of the more common (Microsoft-BASIC derived) "Applesoft BASIC". You do that by saying "INT" at the prompt after booting a DOS 3.3 Master disk. Integer BASIC has the advantage of storing program lines in the opposite direction - from the top of memory downwards. Thus your HiRes program can use 21.5K for code with DOS loaded, or 32K without DOS - without having to move the start of BASIC. Of course the disadvantage of Integer BASIC is that it doesn't have HGR, HCOLOR= and HPLOT commands, so instead of those you have to use CALLs into the Programmer's Aid #1 ROM that is included with Integer BASIC, or use POKE. It's just very retro! I will try to add an example here when I find the time.

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