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In his autobiography, Steve Wozniak recounts[1] his difficulty getting interrupts working on the 6502 microprocessor:

The next step was to debug the 256-byte monitor program on the PROMs. I spent a couple of hours trying to get the interrupt version of it working, but I kept failing. I couldn’t write a new program into the PROMs. To do that, I’d have to go to that other building again, just to burn the program into the chip. I studied the chip’s data sheets to see what I did wrong, but to this day I never found it. As any engineer out there reading this knows, interrupts are like that. They’re great when they work, but hard to get to work.

Finally I gave up and just popped in the other two PROMs, the ones with the “polling” version of the monitor program. I typed a few keys on the keyboard and I was shocked! The letters were displayed on the screen!

Can anyone shed some light on the root cause of the problem? Were the 6502's data sheets wrong?


[1] Wozniak, Steve. iWoz. W. W. Norton, 2006.

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    If I understand the story correctly, he tried to get the interrupt version of the monitor to work and failed, using a fallback version in the end. Without a listing of the erroneous program it would be pure speculation to say what was the problem. I found a listing of wozmon at this site sbprojects.net/projects/apple1/wozmon.php which has no interrupt service routines. – Peter B. Nov 7 '19 at 0:29
  • Thanks for reminding me of iWoz - i bought a copy a few years ago, never got around to reading it, and forgot all about it until now! – LAK Nov 7 '19 at 1:01
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    Above statement reads as if the issue wasn't the interrupt, but his attempt to write/change a PROM with the interrupt version. The source code comments do show hints of interrupt usage. Likewise do the Apple 1 schematics. As @PeterB. says, it's all speculation as not even the issue is described in consistent form. – Raffzahn Nov 7 '19 at 6:44
  • SO has the close reason, "This question was caused by a problem that can no longer be reproduced or a simple typographical error." which I think fits here? – OmarL Nov 7 '19 at 16:24
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    @Wilson If you can prove that the interrupt-based monitor program no longer exists, I think it would be better as an answer than as a close reason. – snips-n-snails Nov 7 '19 at 16:29
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My two cents: I have written a lot of code with interrupts, and failed many times. Interrupts are very difficult to debug because they are asynchronous, you cannot easily enforce the same conditions again and again and you are fighting against race conditions and a lot of "background" operations.

The main problem, in my opinion, was that Woz had to program a PROM with a new version. It is very expensive (a lot of time, failed PROMs are destroyed forever, etc.) so he had only a few shots. With such conditions, it is better to give it up than keeping the "try-fail" approach.

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  • I think this does answer the question, because of the second paragraph. – wizzwizz4 Dec 8 '19 at 10:57

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