Ignoring MS-Net, Microsoft has marketed server systems since 1987: first LAN Manager, based on OS/2, then in 1993 Windows NT 3.1 Advanced Server, and then the various Server editions of successive Windows NT and Windows 2000 releases, which gave way to Windows Server.
MS-DOS 3.1 and later, and all versions of Windows, have been able to integrate with these server systems (and others, such as Novell Netware). At the most basic level, LAN Manager client software provides access to the file and print sharing features, and these are usable from DOS and Windows (initially through DOS, later on through built-in support in Windows). As server features and client features expanded over time, the integration became tighter, with servers becoming domain controllers and “client” operating systems supporting ever stricter lockdowns (so that their use is centrally-controlled).
Many versions of Windows also support peer-to-peer networking, which was introduced in Windows for Workgroups. Microsoft also sold a Workgroups add-on for DOS, providing similar features on MS-DOS. (Other companies provided similar peer-to-peer networking tools.)
But all “client” operating systems, whether marketed for home, office, or workstation use, can be used without servers. Many of them can be configured to rely on a server, or even to only act as thin clients, but that’s not inherent in any specific version of a Windows operating system product. That is to say, there aren’t any “client-only” versions of Windows, at least out of the box.
Viewed in the other direction, there aren’t any technically home-only versions of Windows either; even MS-DOS and Windows 3.1 could be integrated into a Windows NT domain (using the LAN Manager client and the Client for Microsoft Networks). There are “Home” editions of Windows, which can’t join Windows domains as members, but they can still access many domain resources (including remote desktops and applications), and the core operating system is still the same as other editions of the same Windows version (Windows 10 Home v. Windows 10 Pro etc.).
In terms of technology bases, there is a distinction: MS-DOS and non-NT versions of Windows (Windows 1.0 to 3.11, 95, 98, and Me) were never used to build a Microsoft server operating system. OS/2 and Windows NT were and are used to build both client and server systems.