I am curious to learn about any developments in computer theory, hardware, and software that took place outside of the United States, in the middle of last century (~1940s-1980s).
I have read 'Where Wizards Stay up Late' (K Hafner and M Lyon; a real gem of a book) on the development of the Internet, as well as 'The Cathedral & the Bazaar' (E Raymond), and I'm currently reading 'Hackers' (S Levy). Other books on my reading list include 'The Difference Engine' on Charles Babbage, 'Just For Fun' on Linus Torvalds, 'The Mythical Man-Month' (F Brooks), and a few others. I am also working my way through 'The Annotated Turing' (C Petzold). So far, the only non-American whose name comes immediately to mind is Alan Turing.
Can anyone recommend any books, articles, or other sources, that discuss non-American contributions to the development of computers, from the 1940s to the ~1980s? Were there any European or Asian equivalents to the hacker groups that nucleated at MIT, Berkeley, Stanford, and other schools? Any non-American equivalents to BBN Technologies or MITS (Altair 8080 mnfr.)?