So, first off, to begin with this isn't "exactly" retrocomputing; the technology in question is about 5-10 years old. That being said, I couldn't find answers anywhere else, so my best bet was to ask here.
Anyway, I recently found my mother's old (~5-10 year old) laptop, and I saw a few ports on there that I have been unable to recognize.
Here's some pictures:
What exactly are these, and what do they do?