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The most controversial part of the IEEE 754 floating-point standard is gradual denormals. Typically they trap to software rather than being implemented in hardware. In the common case where a workload has numbers that decline to zero, when they hit the denormal range, there is an abrupt slowdown of a couple of orders of magnitude until the programmer finds out what's going on and how to turn off denormals. There is a good reason for this: in a nutshell, to make them run fast, would require spending more hardware resources all the time so that, for a given budget of transistors and power, everything would run slower in throughput, latency or both: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/54937154/why-are-denormal-floating-point-values-slower-to-handle

When the IEEE 754 committee was debating the matter, DEC hired an expert numerical analyst named Pete Stewart to study it and give his opinion, expecting him to support their position (based on experience with the VAX) that denormals should not be in the standard; they were unpleasantly surprised when he claimed they could in fact be implemented efficiently: https://people.eecs.berkeley.edu/~wkahan/19July10.pdf

But I haven't been able to find any specifics on how he expected this to be done. Presumably if the method he was thinking of would really work with no downside, modern CPUs would use it.

So what was he thinking? Why doesn't it work with no downside? Why did he believe it would? Was he ignoring latency and power consumption? Was he ignoring diffuse cost? (Sure, you can make denormals just as fast as normals – by making everything slower.) Was he working on assumptions that were true only with the technology of the time? (Gate delays exceeding wire delays, floating point implemented in microcode?) Or something else I haven't thought of?

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As far as I am familiar with the genesis of the IEEE-754 floating-point standard from the literature, G. W. Stewart never looked at implementation cost for the support of gradual underflow. He was tasked with examining its claimed advantages to floating-point computation from a numerical analysis viewpoint.

Charles Severance, "IEEE 754: An Interview with William Kahan." Computer, Vol. 31, No. 3, March 1998, pp. 114-115

Yes, DEC had been struggling to persuade us that gradual underflow was a bad thing. If they could prove it was unnecessary, there was no reason not to use DEC’s exponent bias. The exceptional handling and other details could be done with small tweaks. DEC finally commissioned one of the most prominent error analysts in the east, G.W. (Pete) Stewart, to perform the study. He was to look into the error analysis aspects to demonstrate that gradual underflow was not all that I had cracked it up to be. [...] At a meeting in Boston in 1981, Stewart reported that, on balance, he thought gradual underflow was the right thing to do. The DEC folk who had commissioned the report were rather disappointed and they said, "OK, we’ll publish this later."

Severance's interview notes entitled "An Interview with the Old Man of Floating-Point" also describe DEC's objections from a hardware implementation viewpoint (in this quote, K-C-S refers to the proposal by Kahan, Coonen, and Stone which eventually became the basis for IEEE-754):

At an early meeting of p754 in the late 1970s a hardware engineer from DEC had stated flatly that K-C-S could not be built to run as fast as VAX arithmetic hardware. Meanwhile George Taylor, then a graduate student supervised by Computer Science Prof. Dave Patterson at U.C. Berkeley, had been building K-C-S floating-point onto two accelerator boards for a VAX there. The plan was to substitute these for DEC's without changing the VAX instruction set, and then see how well software ran on each arithmetic. After Taylor showed his design to a p754 meeting nobody could dispute the feasibility of fast K-C-S floating-point.

DEC's objections to a supposedly unacceptably high implementation burden for the proposed floating-point standard were refuted by two researchers from UC Berkeley, who built standard-compliant replacements for the five VAX FPA (floating-point accelerator) boards:

George S. Taylor and David Patterson, "VAX hardware for the proposed IEEE floating-point standard." In: 5th IEEE Symposium on Computer Arithmetic, May 1981, pp. 190-196

In the summary line of table 1 in the paper one sees that the total IC count increased from 700 in DEC's original hardware to 870 for the standard compliant replacement. This 25% increase in hardware expenditure was necessary not just to support gradual underflow but all proposed new features including extended precision and square root capability. The table shows an increase from 35 to 45 ICs for normalization functionality. Table 2 shows that the execution time of the standard-compliant operations provided by the replacement boards is roughly in line with DEC's original FPA, some are a bit slower, others are a bit faster.

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Suppose one is considering adding something to the specifications of a car that will, on 1% of units manufactured, extend the time required to perform some fabrication step by ten seconds. How much should that be expected to affect the cost of a car?

If cars are being assembled individually, the extra cost would be trivial. An average of 0.1 seconds per car. If cars are being mass-produced on an assembly line, however, the extra cost could be huge. If each station on the assembly line takes 2.5 minutes, and the extra 10 seconds of labor would have to be added at a stage that already takes 2.45 minutes, it would be necessary to either feed every car through an extra assembly line stage, or else extend the time for all assembly-line stages by 7 seconds every time a car required that extra step.

When floating-point standards were being written, floating-point operations would involve performing multiple steps performed sequentially on one number at a time. Mandated support for features like denormals would sometimes necessitate an extra step, but that would only affect the execution time for a few operations, and only by a little bit.

Modern CPUs, however, have multiple floating-point units, each of which will be pipelined so that as soon as one section finishes the first step of a floating-point operation on a number, it can start performing the first step of a floating-point operation on another number while a different section performs the second step on the first number. To make operations flow together efficiently, a scheduling unit will need to be able to predict when the results from each operation will become available.

Even if each floating-point operation would require four steps, and the time required to handle a denormalized value would be 10% of the time required to perform one step, handling such values would require either reducing the speed of all floating-point computations by 10%, making floating-point operations take five steps instead of four, or generating a pipeline stall whenever a denormalized number is processed, which would impact not only the particular computation involving the denormalized value, but could delay many other computations on multiple computation units. If computation units #2 and #3 expect that a certain result will be available from unit #1 at a certain time, but it ends up being late, units #2 and #3 will end up sitting idle for a cycle while they await the result, which will in turn cause any results that are affected by them to end up being late as well.

While the marginal cost of supporting denormalized values would have been small when using floating-point hardware that processes one number at a time, they have huge impacts on the performance of heavily pipelined multi-processors.

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    This does not appear to actually answer the question, this more or less repeats OP's own findings. – hythis Nov 12 '20 at 17:32
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    @whn: I didn't see any mention of pipelining, which makes the worst-case time to perform an operation much important than what would otherwise be the "average" time. Advocates of denormals knew how to implement them in a way with a low average cost, and might reasonably have anticipated that something that adds 5% to the cost of 1% of operations might on some systems end up having a performance penalty that's closer to 0.5% than to 0.05%, would be unlikely to have expected that such a small average cost would end up being amplified by orders of magnitude. – supercat Nov 12 '20 at 17:57
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    In real world usage, having to process denormals is almost always a side-effect of poor algorithm design. Even in 32-bit IEEE floating point, you have approximately 7 (decimal) significant figures and a dynamic range of 10^38. For 64 bit, the ratio is much higher - the dynamic range is more than 10^200 times bigger than the number of particles in the observable universe. But the world is full of floating point code that is so bad it's "not even poor." – alephzero Nov 12 '20 at 20:06
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    @alephzero: Most of the tasks performed with floating point would be served perfectly adequately by an implementation where computations could yield any value that was within 0.75ulp of being correct (perfect rounding would have a worst-case error of 0.5ulp), where all infinities and NaNs were equivalent (which would among other things eliminate the distinction between positive and and minus zero), and where equality always implied equivalence. I don't think there's any correlation between code that is sensitive to the behavior of denormals and "poor quality code", but would... – supercat Nov 12 '20 at 20:20
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    ...expect sensitivity to rounding issues including those associated with denormals to be largely dependent upon what a program is trying to do. To be sure, well-written code will often be less senstive to rounding than worse-written code, but code which would fail under loose rounding rules but work 100% reliably under IEEE-754 rules is probably written with more attention to detail than would be typical of floating-point code. – supercat Nov 12 '20 at 20:22

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