DEMOS was a Soviet operating system derived from BSD Unix. The answer to this question shows that the familiar, English-derived BSD commands were essentially the same in DEMOS.

Did DEMOS have a C compiler? If so, was it called C (which in Cyrillic has an 's' sound), K (which has the 'ck' sound), or something else?

The previous question was about having commands spelled the same, but this does not guarantee that any particular software was installed.

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    Just wondering why they should call it anything else? Latin C is a different character than Cyrillic С (This is not a C - check the encoding :)). Both are present on Cyrillic keyboards. Use is per character set, not glyph.
    – Raffzahn
    Apr 28, 2021 at 23:14
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    The name of the C language is pronounced like the name of the letter C, not like the sound of the letter C in English. The name of the letter is pronounced differently in many languages that use the Roman alphabet (e.g. "say" in French, "tzee" in German, "chee" in Italian). Why is Russian worth a special question about this?
    – alephzero
    Apr 29, 2021 at 1:38
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    Isn't this a straight up duplicate of your other question? Apr 29, 2021 at 5:51
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    Does this answer your question? DEMOS commands: Cyrillic or Roman letters? Uppercase or lowercase? Apr 29, 2021 at 5:52
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    @OmarL: No, it is not a duplicate of the other question, which is about whether the commands had the same names. That does not necessarily mean that a C compiler was installed.
    – DrSheldon
    Apr 29, 2021 at 6:13

1 Answer 1


2.9BSD, being a self-hosting operating system, includes all the source code and all the tools necessary to build it. That includes the C compiler, the assembler, and everything. There is no mention anywhere of any of this being renamed for DEMOS, so it's a safe bet that they had the same name.

DEMOS is similar in spirit to something like Russian Fedora Remix, which is a Linux distribution (everything is named the same, it is GNU/Linux after all), but ships with conveniences like a Russian keyboard layout and translations of user-friendly error messages. But you'd expect make to still invoke cc.

The Latin letter C is unrelated to the Russian letter С, even though they look the same and have (sometimes) the same pronunciation. The latter is descended from the Greek sigma, like our S is. C, the programming language, was named for being the next after B, so Cyrillic names like С or К wouldn't really make much sense as a name for C. The language is known as C in Russia, (to be clear, that's a Latin letter C. But sometimes that's transliterated into Cyrillic as "Си", which spells out the sound, "see"). But the compilers are called "GCC", "clang", "cc" or whatever. And as explained in your other question, the filenames, i.e. the commands are the same on DEMOS as on 2.9BSD.

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    LOL. Haven't thought about C being the sequence to B - in Cyrillic sorting sequence that's even more funny as the third letter and sequence to Б is В. So following that logic, A C compiler should be named В in Cyrillic ... ROTFL ... that really made my day :))
    – Raffzahn
    Apr 29, 2021 at 11:13
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    The "C comes after B in the alphabet" (as the C language is a followup to B, itself descended from BCPL) is only half true. The successor to C could be D (next letter in the alphabet) or P (next letter in BCPL).
    – vonbrand
    Apr 30, 2021 at 11:35
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    @vonbrand: Digital Mars thinks it's D ;-) May 3, 2021 at 17:04

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