There may be no one single answer to this question, since the various clones might have done this all in different ways. And of course, some clones do not have the Cyrillic text support at all. I'm not aware of any, but if there were any clones also supporting other scripts, such as Georgian or whatever, that's also of interest to me.

I've read of several Russian ZX Spectrum clones supporting Cyrillic text. But I'm not finding much information about how this was implemented. The ZX Spectrum has basically a bitmap display, and the ROM basically copies a character, eight bytes at a time, onto the bitmap. Therefore, one (cost-ineffective) way this could be implemented is to page out the ROM for an identical one, but with a Cyrillic font substituted, just for the duration of the routine that wants to print the Russian word.

But then, this would be confusing with the miscellaneous keyboard modes and everything that the ZX Spectrum also did. There's K for keyword entry, E for the extended mode, L to enter letters/numbers, and more from what I remember. If left in K while the Cyrillics were switched in, you'd end up with gibberish ЗКШТЕ on the screen, for the token PRINT, but this would not be a syntax error). So, do any clones add an R mode or something?

  • 1
    Still, the most of the clones did not support cyrillic in any way. That means they had an original ROM. And I guess it was a pain for those having cyrillized ROMs because of lesser compatibility.
    – lvd
    Jan 22, 2022 at 21:57
  • @lvd True - at least for the Мастер system I own. A mostly straight 48k clone without any character set or font extensions.
    – Raffzahn
    Jan 22, 2022 at 22:14
  • 3
    Related: To get Hebrew on my (original) Spectrum 48K, I defined the UDG (User-Defined Graphics) characters to the Hebrew letters. That was a suboptimal solution since I had to load it from tape every time, the was no RTL (right-to-left) handling, and also there are only 21 UGSs (0x90..0xA4), while there are 22 Hebrew letters (+5 final forms). Still, good enough for 10-year-old me
    – Jonathan
    Jan 23, 2022 at 12:55

1 Answer 1


I own a clone produced in Ukrainian Soviet Republic - "ОРЕЛЬ БК-08". It supports Cyrillic and Latin fonts.

The main idea is similar to ANSI.SYS approach for DOS. There is a special control symbol that is not displayed, but which will switch the current font when being sent to print.

The БК-08 had a РУС key on its keyboard that "switch" the language by inserting the required service symbols as you type the text.

The keyboard is actually very decent, almost matching the PC keyboard layout. The new keys that was not present in the original Speccy - like the arrows navigation, edit/graph/tab/backspace - did not introduce new keycodes, but instead were mapped in the hardware to the combination of Caps/Symbol Shift and the key corresponding to original ZX Spectrum rules. enter image description here

So in the memory your string would be "Hello <РУС>Кириллица<LAТ> and Latin", with <РУС>/<LAТ> being a single byte control symbol. When printing the text on screen the BASIC would jump between fonts when encountering control symbols. And if you press that РУС button multiple times it would insert new control symbol each time, so editing the line with Backspace would switch the current language (indicated by the letter in blinking cursor) again and again as you delete the last control symbols. Even navigating through the line with left/right arrow keys would visually "stall" on the sequence of such symbols and indicate language changes with cursor, moving past the character position only after you've stepped past all the control symbols.

Both Latin an Cyrillic fonts are present in the ROM simultaneously, there was enough unused space left in the original 48K ROM. Since there is no true text mode in ZX Spectrum, there's no problem having symbols from both fonts displayed simultaneously on the screen - that's only a result of drawing copies of symbols, and there's no way of knowing who and how did print those copies. There are also no separate symbol codes for different languages. Strictly speaking there are no languages, just fonts and control symbols to switch between them when outputting symbols strictly in serial manner. The Cyrillic texts in strings were represented with Latin symbols with alternative font when being printed. Come to think of it, the very same way ZX Spectrum represents the texts in inverse color.

The PRINT function always starts with Latin font. The code to switch to Cyrillic font is 0x1E and the code to switch to Latin is 0x1F.

There is no global 'language' state, these markers belong to the string data and only interpreted by PRINT during symbols rendering. Sort of markup language tags. So when looking at the symbol alone out of the string data context there is no way to tell if it's Latin or Cyrillic symbol.

When you enter the new BASIC line the new line editor always starts in Latin mode. As you switch the language, the editor inserts the symbol to switch to the other font, apparently it tracks the selection in the temporary editor state, and knows which language is active for the letter at current cursor position. The whole line is redrawn after any change in the string, as a consequence of this redraw the rest of the line instantly gets reinterpreted as different language up until the next encountered marker.

Since the BASIC keywords in program lines are represented with tokens and not with plain texts, the language switch never alters the keywords representation, the keyword tokens are always rendered as Latin texts.

The symbols encoding for Cyrillic looks very much like KOI-7 N1 (probably it is) - i.e. the symbols roughly correspond to Latin letters phonetically, and the lower/upper cases are swapped.

Comparing strings АБВГ то ABWG would not return equal because of the difference in cases, and because of the markup markers present in the АБВГ string. Cyrillic АБВГ string would be at least 5 bytes long (starting with non-printable 0x1E).

If during INPUT statement execution you switched language multiple times before finally settling on the language you will be typing, or if you switched the language at the different character (e.g. before or after the whitespace) then such string would not be equal to string constants in BASIC program that has markers at some exact positions. You could easily end up with the Latin text that looks entirely Latin, but inside it would have tons of redundant or cancelling each other markers. Comparing Cyrillic texts was not a good idea without transforming inputs to some canonical representation, but probably nobody bothered to do so.

As example here's the BASIC program printing mixed languages text: enter image description here

And this is its output: enter image description here

This did come at cost though, since this broke the compatibility with games that were using IM2 interrupt mode and pointing interrupt vector to the ROM area which was expected to be filled with 0xFF. Since it wasn't 0xFF anymore (there is a Cyrillic font now), such games were crashing. This could be "fixed" by loading original 48K ROM image file into the shadow ram (writing to ROM area would transparently write to shadow ram) and switching the banks between ROM chips and shadow ram by writing flags to a clone-specific I/O port.

  • Cool, Thanks. So lets haggle about electronics. If i understand this right, within a BASIC string the code 41h is used for D as well as Д, with no way to differentiate between them? Thus comparing the string ABWG to АБВГ will return equal (Assuming KOI-7 like encoding). In turn, does every PRINT statement start out in Latin mode, or is the mode conserved over multiple statements? If state is conserves, how to set a definite start? Next, the description sounds as if an input may contain one or more 'RUS' characters does it? Which code is РУС anyway?
    – Raffzahn
    Jan 22, 2022 at 21:33
  • @Raffzahn Extended the answer.
    – Vlad
    Jan 22, 2022 at 22:57
  • Now, that confuses me even more. So there is one key to be presses РУС, but two switch bytes (1Eh/1Fh)? So how does the key press routine 'know' which one to insert? Or is there a LAT key as well? Also, when ignoring the string compare wasn't about the switch bytes but the used character codes, i.e. g is the same as Г ?
    – Raffzahn
    Jan 22, 2022 at 23:06
  • @Raffzahn Yes, there's just one button РУС, no LAT. Apparently the line editor always starts with Latin font, and must have local state maintained (only for the duration of the line editing) to track the currently selected font for the symbol under the cursor, so it knows what to insert at any time you want to change the language. At least that's how I remember it, can't fire it up quickly to confirm. For symbols encoding - yes, g equals Г, and F equals ф.
    – Vlad
    Jan 22, 2022 at 23:22
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    Yeesh, I thought Russification was a thing of the 30's. and of the 80's too. So the БК-08 did not only have a РУС button, but also no Ukrainian specific letters like Ї, Ґ, Є. This situation is the same as on another Ukrainian computer, this one with a Ukrainian name, ПК Львів. Jan 24, 2022 at 9:14

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