Unless going the SCSI bridge route described in another post, you will very likely need a PC with an ISA slot - such mainboards were only common up to the Pentium 3 era, unless you are using a PC using the PICMG backplane form factor used for industrial control.
ST-506 interface drives (aka MFM/RLL) were very dependent on the controller paired to it. A factory new drive was commonly low level formatted using a tool in the controller ROM (debug g=c800:5 IIRC) and would then only work correctly with this or a similarly designed controller card until low level formatted with another controller's tool. In some cases, defect lists had to be typed in from a label on the drive itself, or from accompanying paper documentation, or built by the firmware tool. These were then stored in some location on the drive itself for use of the controller - an ST-506 drive does not hide damaged sectors at its connector, this is the controller card's job to handle.
There is no drive identification of any kind with this interface, the BIOS and the controller firmware has to be told what kind of drive is connected and what its operating parameters are.
An old school IDE drive was basically offering a reduced ISA bus on its connector, emulating a WD1003 controller card.
It can prove necessary to disable most or any on-mainboard IDE, SATA, Floppy functionality to stop it from conflicting with the ST-506 card.
Be aware that two standards - ST-506 aka MFM/RLL, and ESDI, existed back then that had identical looking connectors and superficially identical looking controller cards. These also are very similar from a what-to-do view, but the electrical interface drive-to-controller is totally different.
Be aware that some drives need terminating resistors on the last drive on the cable enabled or installed, similar to SCSI. Be aware that some of the signalling on the two cables is essentially analog.
If experimenting, mind that accidentally letting the low level format tool from a ST-506 controller loose on an IDE drive (some IDE might have it built into a corner of their own firmware, or the firmware from an actual controller card could mess with registers on an IDE drive installed in the same machine) was a known way of messing up IDE drives back in the day.