As a developer in a team, I am used to some techniques and workflow, like using git, issue trackers, linters, common ways to discuss the structure of the code, the ways to debug and refactor code.

I wonder, how it was performed in 80's?

Say, there are many titles for NES, e.g. Castlevania or Contra. These include graphics, sound effects, music, level designs. Work on these games include research on what can be technically done and what is not possible.

Who were those people working on games? How many people worked on one game? Was this work temporary for them or were there people who did it for years?

What was a career path for a game developer then? Where are they now?

How could a workday look for those employees? Like, a morning standup, a day of code creation, running and checking it on a TV? If people worked on separate machines, how did they merge all the changes into one working game?

Are there stories or books where I can know more about how it was and if it was much more different than is done these days?

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    Some good questions here, but they need to be separated and asked individually. Check the help center for how to ask good questions. Also, some of these questions are more suited to Software Engineering.SE.
    – Mick
    Mar 30 '17 at 14:47
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    You underestimate us '70s and '80s coders! As others have said, this probably ought to be multiple questions. The SE system doesn't work well with multiple questions in one post.
    – Chenmunka
    Mar 30 '17 at 14:55
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    Don't be too concerned by the "too broad" banner; many of us here have underestimated the scope of a question they've asked. People have upvoted this question despite the broadness. Take one aspect of this question and ask that separately, then repeat for the other parts (although not all at once!).
    – wizzwizz4
    Mar 30 '17 at 17:46
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    Related, if not a duplicate of one of your many questions: Retrocomputing Software Development Process/Methodologies
    – JAL
    Mar 30 '17 at 19:42