The Motorola 68000 has 16 (somewhat) general-purpose registers of 32 bits each, a generous complement by the standards of its day. I would expect these to take a significant fraction of the die area. (If they didn't, there would be little reason for competing microprocessors like the 8086 to fail to provide something similar.)

Back of the envelope calculation, 16x32x6 (static memory takes six transistors per bit) = 3072 transistors. The 68k is reckoned to have 40k transistors if you don't count microcode, almost 70k if you do. So the memory cells for the registers should take somewhere around 5% of the die; maybe it's closer to 10% if you also take the access circuitry into account?

That is surprisingly small, sufficiently so that it seems like 32 registers could've been provided. (The ARM-1 did exactly that, somewhat later but with similar process technology.) Maybe the instruction encoding space would have been considered a problem. Or maybe the designers were considering use of compiled languages, and noting contemporary compilers were not good at using lots of registers.

Trying to find an annotated die photo, I found this: http://www.easy68k.com/paulrsm/doc/dpbm68k2.htm

Which... doesn't mention the registers at all, nor leave any unaccounted space where they could be.

Is there an error in the annotation? or are the registers part of one of the marked units?

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    It wasn't so much the (admittedly generous, but Z80 or 8086 aren't far off with 14) amount of registers the 68k offered, but rather the fact that they were truely (or nearly truely considering the distinction between Ax and Dx) general-purpose. Gone were the days where you always ended up with the value in the "wrong" register for the next operation, gone were the days where you shuffled around values to free up a loop counter. That fact was also a relief for compiler writers whose register allocators could now degenerate to almost trivial.
    – tofro
    Jul 7, 2023 at 6:33
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    The 8086 did not fail to provide sixteen general purpose registers. It provided as many registers as the system architects thought it needed when they looked at the big picture. Maybe you didn't enjoy writing 8086 assembly code as much as 68000 assembly code (I certainly didn't!!) but then again, we all eventually figured out not to write any assembly code except in very rare cases. (I wrote a bare-metal embedded system for a 68000, and I remember bragging to my peers about how there were only 17 lines of assembly source in the whole thing.) Jul 7, 2023 at 15:44
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    @SolomonSlow architects vision and bigger picture are the key words. The 8086 is, much like the 6502 designed to excel at certain usage. If one is not able to take the same PoV, unhappiness is guaranteed. It's like having a pet with personality. In contrast the 68k follows a rather bland recipe. Not much to dislike but as well not much to like - quite like Mickey D's.
    – Raffzahn
    Jul 7, 2023 at 16:42
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    @tofro Read close, it never said being mediocre can't be appealing :))
    – Raffzahn
    Jul 7, 2023 at 23:00
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    Hindsight is 20/20. We can look back today and categorically say that the 8086 was a questionable design for what it ultimately ended up used for, but at the time it was a reasonable design for it’s intended purpose. Purpose-specific registers were relatively normal, it was designed to compete with comparable chips recently released by NatSemi, Motorola, and Zilog while remaining assembly-compatible with the 8008, 8080, and 8085, and it was supposed to be a stop-gap (Intel was betting on the success of the iAXP 432, which obviously did not pan out). Jul 8, 2023 at 2:26

3 Answers 3


In the photo you link, they are near the bottom, part of the address execution unit, and data execution unit. In this cropped section from a higher resolution image (linked in the comments), you can see the regular structure. That is from the bottom left corner; the vertical columns are (part) of the address registers. The registers are partially fused with the arithmetic and logic.

Just eyeballing it, they seem to use, very roughly, 10% of the die area. This is rather close to the estimate you came up with.


The Motorola 68000 has 16 (somewhat) general-purpose registers of 32 bits each

Well, not really; the 68k ISA does not feature a single set of 16 General Purpose Registers (GPRs) but two sets of 8 specialized registers - each handled and numbered on its own.

That is surprisingly small, sufficiently so that it seems like 32 registers could've been provided.

Sure. Chip space wouldn't increase much - even 64 registers wouldn't make it bloaty.

But chip space needed is only of secondary consideration - if not even lower - when designing a new CPU. Long before anyone tries to design the CPU circuitry, the desired instruction set will be drawn up, as it defines what is to be done and therefore needed in the first place. Hence people usually talk about an Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) when it comes to design, not CPU gate knitting.

When designing an ISA with a general purpose register file, the size of that file is most of all dependent on the amount of code size, i.e. number of bits within an instruction, that can be spent. In case of the 68000 there was room for a single 3-bit field to mark which register is to be used. Which set to be used is defined either by the (3-bit) mode field (*1) and/or the instruction itself.

Having 16 GPRs instead of 8+8, without spending any other functionality, would mean the opcodes would grow from 16 to 18 bits; with 32 GPRs it's 20 bits.

This is the reason why the 68k has not a single 16-register file but two of 8 each. Instruction bits are a more important resource than any chip area.

*1 - Mode 0 -> Data Register ; 1 -> Address Register; 2..6 -> Addressing modes; 7 -> Special Addressing Modes

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    @JeremyP Well, that's true for the entire CPU. With a little more thinking lot could have been improved with the 68k. ut it's a typical Motorola design: Straight out of the book.
    – Raffzahn
    Jul 7, 2023 at 15:26
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    @Tommy the point is that most instructions do not operate on Dn or An, at least, not for both operands. Most instructions operate on effective addresses. Most of the effective address modes except the absolute, PC relative, immediate and register direct modes require the specification of an address register e.g. there is (An) but not (Dn). If you have 16 registers that can operate in the capacity of an address register instead of 8 registers, you need that extra fourth bit for the register specification and there's no way around it without adding complexity to the instruction decoding.
    – JeremyP
    Jul 10, 2023 at 17:59
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    @Tommy Neat. Feels a bit bloaty, then again, it is for modern machines, so who cares about absolute speed:) I very much like the user centred approach. We need more stuff like that.
    – Raffzahn
    Jul 11, 2023 at 14:01
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    @Tommy well, that comment was more about the decoder code, but yeah, you're right.
    – Raffzahn
    Jul 11, 2023 at 14:42
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    @Tommy Regarding the 4 bit field. This seems only true when looking at the effective address and taking the mode as part of the register number - which it is not. It is for one not true as mode 001 is simply not supported for most operations (see AND etc.) and second the register field (bit 5..7), can only hold a data reg. Using the direction bit doesn't help much - not to mention that encoding would be no longer continuous. That's why ADDA/SUBA exist as dedicated instructions. ISA wise those are two separate register sets. (P.S.: does the linked map of yours on purpose decode ADDQ as ADD?)
    – Raffzahn
    Jul 11, 2023 at 14:43

I'm sure there were all sorts of tradeoffs the designers balanced, but eight GP data registers and seven GP address registers was already luxurious in those days.

Going to more registers would've required bumping the register-select part of every opcode to 4 bits instead of 3, which would've left less space available for distinguishing actual operations. (As you say, instruction encoding space.)

I'll have to dig out the linked issue of Byte. I was admiring the 68000 from afar at that time; a year or so later, I was teaching its assembly language to freshmen. Happy days!

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    Above the increased opcode size, how much extra internal wiring complexity is created by adding more registers?
    – RonJohn
    Jul 7, 2023 at 1:54
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    @RonJohn not much, as register in and output gors from and to busses, so it's all about latching - whicha register needs anyway and output buffer - which as well is a given.
    – Raffzahn
    Jul 7, 2023 at 15:27

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