All mainstream microprocessors from the 4004 on, have implemented signed integer arithmetic with twos complement and silent wraparound on overflow (by which I mean that the CPU itself will not trap, though might set a flag that code could check). The C language standard allows signed integer arithmetic to trap on overflow, and GCC will do this if you specify
Which historical CPUs (not necessarily microcomputer) have implemented trap on signed integer overflow (i.e. the CPU itself generates the trap)? I believe Mill does so, but that is still an R&D project, not a shipping CPU.