There were. A couple of examples are the Motorola MC6845 and the MC6847. These chips were flexible and allowed various resolutions and colors depending on how they were implemented.
The MC6845 was used in the Acorn BBC Micro, the Amstrad CPC and the IBM PC MDA and CGA video adapters.
The MC6847 was used in the Tandy TRS-80 [Model 1], the Acorn Atom, the Tandy Color Computer, the Dragon 32, and the V-Tech Laser 200.
Some companies made their own custom video chips and didn't allow anyone else use them. Examples would be Atari (TIA, ANTIC/GTIA, MARIA, Shifter), Commodore (VIC, VIC-II, TED, Agnus/Denise), Apple (with the IIgs), and Tandy (with the GIME in the CoCo3).
Other companies made video chips with fixed abilities, usually more powerful than the Motorola chips but with fixed resolutions, colors, and sprites, and sold them for other companies to use in their own systems.
Examples are General Instruments' AY-3-8900-1 (used in the Mattel Intellivision), Texas Instruments' TMS9918 (used in the MSX, TI-99/4(A), Coleco ADAM, and ColecoVision), and Yamaha's V9938 (used in various MSX2 systems), V9958 (used in various MSX2+ systems), and the V9990 (not sure where it was used).