This question doesn't make sense in its actual state. 'Thermal design power' is nonsense term when taking about a computer (in fact it's even more when it's about CPUs). Computers are neither designed to do mechanical work, light rooms or alike. There is no physical computing power - the only physical output is heat and a little bit of HF radiation.
So the only usefull question I to be found would be 'have there been desktopcomputers with more than 1 kW power rating'.
And the answer is Yes, quite a lot.
Already the IMSAI PS was rated at 500 Watt primary, and it didn't take long for third party frames to offer PS with 1 kW primry and more. And primary is a key issue here. Before the advent of switching, the power supply itself was usually the most critical part. In case of above IMSAI, up to 2/3rd of the primary power was wasted to heat up the PS. Removing that substantial heat was also needed to protect the PS, not so much the CPU.
Watercooling in computers was also not introduced to keep computing chips cool, but their transformers and power electronics. For example, a SIEMENS 7.760 X4 CPU, an upper end /370ish machine of ~1980 had a watercooled power supply, but air cooled electronics.
Even with a switching PS, like the Apple II pionered, the PS stayed the main heat source within the case. Kensington made good money with their system saver series of add on fans. It took many years until the computing chips itself got miniaturized enough to need even a simple head spreader for the little power they transformed.