Which language and/or server software did Google use for its initial version?
When Google was just a research project at Stanford headed up by Larry Page, it was known as BackRub. This name alluded to the fact that the PageRank algorithm being developed relied on traversing backlinks to rank each indexed search result by something related to its popularity.
The original BackRub can still be viewed via the WayBack Machine. This early version from 1998 indicates that the project was implemented in Java and Python and ran on Sun Ultra servers as well as Linux machines on Intel Pentiums hardware.