A prime example is Atari burying thousands of unsold game cartridges in landfill.
Well, that may have had its source with hubris over overestimated sales numbers (and licensing fees), in combination with less than desirable conversions regarding quality (Pac-Man) or story (Raiders of the Lost Ark) or combinations of both (ET).
However the effect on other global markets is not as obvious to me.
As there was next to none.
What effect, if any, did the 1983 crash have on other game console markets, such as Asia, Europe, and South America?
In Europe (*1) video consoles weren't as much hyped as in the US, and the market was far from saturation. In addition, US manufacturers didn't hold a major stake. European manufactured systems like Saba Videoplay, Philips G7000 or Interton VC4000 covered most of the market. Unlike US manufacturers as Atari or Coleco or Mattel, who tried to establish their systems as brands on their own, European systems were sold (in addition) under many brands (*2), usually by TV manufacturers who often adapted them to the feature interfaces of their TV sets (*3) or were even built into a TV set. Still, games could be exchanged, thus supplying all these 'different' systems with a reasonable game base to support purchase.
The transition to home computers, after 1980, happened in Europe well before market saturation, resulting in a smooth 'hand over', making already good home computer sales, when distributors in the US still tried to push ever more video games. It also enabled European companies like Thomson, Amstrad, Sinclair or Philips to establish major market shares.
The US downturn also had a major influence on dependencies of US companies (Atari, Commodore) by giving them a greater say in product development and support, as they became (for some time) the sole source of reliable income.
In Japan the situation developed mostly similarly, as here again the video game market was mostly supplied by local manufacturers and a smooth transition to early home computers happened without creating a bubble first.
*1 - Western Europe, at this time.
*2 - The Interton system gives a great example for this strategy in Europe
*3 - Usually also resulting in better picture and sound quality.