Questions tagged [6502]

For questions about the 6502 series of processors, including hardware and assembly language questions. For questions about the hardware interface also use the "hardware" tag.

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8
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1answer
132 views

SYNC and the 65CE02 instruction timing

From the Wikipedia's 65CE02 page: Internally, the pipeline of the 65CE02 was redesigned to reduce the number of cycles required to execute an instruction. The 65CE02 can recover faster from ...
8
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3answers
857 views

Behavior of the zero and negative/sign flags on classic instruction sets

It seems to me that there's effectively two ways that the zero bit could work. Z is set iff the result of a computation is mathematically equal to 0. Z is set iff a bit pattern consisting entirely of ...
7
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1answer
267 views

When did the 65C02 become available?

The Wikipedia article on the 65C02 is missing an introduction date for any of the mentioned models. I did a bit of poking about with no success. Does anyone know when they were introduced?
21
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1answer
747 views

How good was Woz's FP code?

I just came across this amazing 1976 article by Woz. In it he describes a relatively complete floating-point system for the 6502 with a 32-bit format (similar to earlier MS code). I understand the ...
2
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2answers
200 views

How exactly do all control signals in 6502 work?

I'm trying to make a 6502 replica in Logisim. I want to know what exactly each control signal in 6502, how the clock cycles work and additionally I would like to see an example of these control ...
31
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5answers
4k views

Why does the 6502 have the BIT instruction?

The 6502 has a bit instruction which copies two of the bits into the N and V flags, pretends to and the byte with the accumulator, but discards the result and only affects Z. I'm having a hard time ...
4
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1answer
158 views

65C816: Inputs TTL-compatible?

New 65C816 datasheets say that Vih (for the data bus in particular) is 0.8Vdd, i.e. not TTL-compaible. Old data sheets (for example, the one published in Apple IIgs Hardware Reference) say that at 5V ...
9
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1answer
733 views

Looking for a specific 6502 Assembler

I found some 6502 assembler code for a Commodore 64 program that uses meta commands like #include "foobar", define the address to be assembled to via *=$1234 and define labels without a colon. ...
0
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6answers
821 views

Can you compile 6502 assembly into a stand-alone PC application? [closed]

6502 assembly is a language meant for humans to write themselves, not compilers. It's an older Assembly that powered the olden days of computing and consoles such as the NES and Atari 2600. I want to ...
6
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2answers
290 views

Could a 6502 use different speeds of RAM in a single machine?

I'm not sure I've entirely formed the idea in my head, but I'll ask anyway... One of the things I learned here in RO is that the BBC gained speed by using faster RAM, thereby avoiding cycle stealing ...
9
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1answer
267 views

What's the purpose of HOLD command in 6502 stack pointer

In the Block Diagram the Stack Pointer Register (S) has a HOLD command in addition to the LOAD and BUS ENABLE commands. The HOLD command is linked to the S/S output of the Random Control Logic. What ...
3
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2answers
279 views

How to express hi/lo byte of a label in crasm

I am trying to move my project from xa (which I found rather buggy) to crasm, which is the other 6502 assembler that comes with debian. My project contains a lot of lines like ldx #<pname ldy #&...
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5answers
3k views

Why are different emulators needed to run platforms that use 6502 assembly code?

To my knowledge, an emulator turns machine code for a console into something that your computer can understand. For example, assembly code from a Gamecube game is not the same as from a .exe file. ...
9
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1answer
934 views

Why does this 6502 code push a function address onto the stack before calling?

I am learning how to program the Atari 800 by examining some tutorial code that came with the IDE/Assembler I am using. I am using the MADS assembler for this. putchar_ptr = $346 csrhinh = 752 ...
15
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2answers
4k views

What does “jmp *” mean in 6502 assembly?

Right now I am learning 6502 assembly. Currently I am using the MADS assembler to program for the Atari 800. This program is just a small tutorial program that came with the assembler zip file I ...
3
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1answer
237 views

What is the format of a TurboGrafX instruction (modified 6502 instruction set)?

What is the general format of TurboGrafX processor instructions? For example, and this is made up: one word for opcode + two words for flags + one word for every parameter listed under that ...
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2answers
369 views

Resource for 6502 assembly directives?

I am currently learning about 6502 assembly. One of the documents I am learning about it from is a super mario bros. disassembly document. When I was reading the code I noticed part of the code had ...
8
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3answers
2k views

6502 CMP instruction doesn't compare as expected

I am trying to code in 6502 assembly and for some reason the CMP instruction doesn't work. For example: CLD LDY #$03 LDA #$00 LDX #$05 CMP Y BEQ Equal STX $0200 Equal: BRK ...
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2answers
300 views

Acorn System 1 - is it a collectable? [closed]

I have one of these things gathering dust at home: Acorn System 1 I have the original manual (when I find it?) too. It did work, the last time I powered it up, 35 years ago. Should I throw it in ...
6
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2answers
469 views

Hardware multipliers on classic CPUs

Can anyone offer some back-of-envelope sort of estimates of what sort of gate count was needed to add a multiplier to 8-bit CPUs? I ask because I find it a bit odd that the 6809 had one, but none of ...
16
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2answers
1k views

6502 branch offset calculation

This question expands on How does the 6502 implement its branch instructions? I'm working on a cycle accurate VHDL implementation on an FPGA. I have much of the program logic already written, but I ...
7
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1answer
209 views

DEX: How does a 2-Cycle instruction affect RCL outputs AFTER it completes?

I (as so many people before me) am developing a software simulation of the 6502, mostly based on the often cited block diagrams and several other sources of information. Basically all the components ...
5
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1answer
502 views

Fastest way to write 0x00 to a zero-page memory location? (6502, Atari 2600)

I have a kernel in my 6502 game that writes two dots to a sprite, so for example: ........ ........ .XX..XX. .XX..XX. ........ ........ Either 0, 1, or 2 dots can be on at a time. This is done one ...
3
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2answers
1k views

Why do they use CLI in an IRQ routine?

I am studying an FLI routine in http://codebase64.org/doku.php?id=base:fli_displayer and I noticed that the CLI instruction is being used in this IRQ routine: irq0: pha ... cli ; &...
3
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3answers
1k views

How can a Z80/8080/6502 use VGA?

I've come across a couple of projects that manage to get VGA working with the Z80 and similar CPUs: Veronica (6502 CPU, VGA signal generation by AVR) ZC160 (Z80 CPU, VGA signal generation by GAL) c-...
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6answers
981 views

New 6502 BASICs?

I sort of "have a thing for BASIC" right now, which has led to a couple of great exchanges here in RSE about the variations "back in the day". I'm wondering if anyone is aware of other modern BASICs ...
2
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3answers
674 views

Reading both keyboard and joystick with non-KERNAL code on C64

I'm implementing non-KERNAL joystick and keyboard controls for my Commodore 64 game. I used to use the KERNAL SCNKEY routine earlier to read keyboard and it worked well with my joystick port 2 code. ...
7
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3answers
676 views

Was there any particular reason the 6502's LDX#imm and LDY#imm aren't opcodes A8 and AA?

Parts of the 6502 opcode map are fairly regular, and parts of it aren't. One bit that strikes me as really weird is the decoding of LD_ instructions, in relation to the decoding of other ALU ...
9
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2answers
327 views

Can 6502 programs be transliterated to the SPC700?

The SPC700's instruction set is derived from the 6502's, but moves the instructions around and adds a few. But is it fully backwards compatible? Assuming that the program fully separates data and ...
10
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4answers
1k views

PDP-8 transistor count

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transistor_count provides some transistor count figures for early microprocessors, e.g. 8008 and 6502 both listed at around 3500. The PDP-8 was a 12-bit computer with a ...
11
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3answers
4k views

Z80 x 6502 raw performance

A lot have been said in the internet about the 6502 at 1MHz being roughly equivalent in performance to the Z80 at 4 MHz. Is said that the Z80 have a typical 4 clock ticks per instruction while the ...
4
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0answers
127 views

How does the 6502 check the negative flag internally? [duplicate]

I am currently developing a subset of the 6502 in LogiSim. One of my main resources is Hanson's Block Diagram. Currently I am developing opcodes for the processor, and my current task is the ...
6
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2answers
652 views

Is there a place where I can find 6502 instruction lines by opcode?

I am currently designing a watered-down version of the 6502 in Logisim. I am working off of Hanson's Block Diagram to build my subset. I have fully built the processor using the diagram and other ...
7
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2answers
471 views

Unsigned addition on the 6502

I am currently playing around with pointer and indirect addressing on the C64 and I encountered a problem with the ADC opcode. I am trying to increment a number repeatedly and when it overflows (goes ...
9
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1answer
669 views

Why are some soft switches on the Apple II only triggered with a write?

The Apple II uses memory mapped I/O and soft switches to do many things. One thing has confused me though: why are some soft switches only activated when written to? For example, 80COLON ($C00D) and ...
16
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3answers
885 views

Was the design of MS-BASIC for 6502 based on MS-BASIC for 8080?

Looking through the source code of the 6502 MS-BASIC, certain parts of it seem more reminiscent of how things would be done on the 8080, then on how they should be done on the 6502. Code to find a ...
10
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5answers
2k views

Mapping more than 64kb of address space

I'm planning out a 6502 homebrew build but seem to be stuck in the issue of buying parts. My plan is to extend the addressing capabilities of the 6502 by giving myself 64kb of RAM, and another 64kb of ...
13
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4answers
994 views

6502: What does the Predecode Register exactly do?

When you look at this block diagram you can see a 'Predecode Register' I suppose that the Opcode is already a 8-bit Number (D0-D7). So what was the purpose of the Predecode Register. Did it really ...
2
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1answer
212 views

Which material was used for the 6502/6510/8500 MOSFETs?

I know that in the 80s, there was a shift from aluminum gate material to polycrystalline silicon. I wonder because the 6502 was released in 1975 and there were a lot of different implementations and ...
23
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1answer
2k views

What is the relative code density of 8-bit microprocessors?

When RAM is at a premium, as it was in the old days, a greater code density of an instruction set can be a substantial advantage. (Click saver: Code density refers loosely to how many microprocessor ...
9
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2answers
439 views

Is the software available to simulate building a computer from the ground up? For example a system based on the 6502 [closed]

I recently got me head round the basics of how a CPU works after watching Ben Eaters 8bit bread board computer series of internet videos. Now I am hooked and i want to take my understanding further. ...
24
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4answers
2k views

Why did so many early microcomputers use the MOS 6502 and variants?

Quite a few successful early microcomputers used the MOS 6502 CPU. This included, but was not limited to, systems like the Apple I, Apple II, Commodore PET, and Ataris. A followup known as the MOS ...
15
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3answers
2k views

6510 clock rate of C64: Why was it considerably slower than the 6502 of the Atari 800?

According to Wikipedia, the Atari 8 bit series had a 6502 running at ~1.8 MHz. Why was the clock speed of the 6510 for the C64, which was designed a couple of years later, considerable slower? Was the ...
13
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2answers
689 views

Best way to locate data on ROM? (6502 Processor)

Lately I've been interested in how old machines work, in particular an NES. While there are quite a few resources on the basic operations and even some games that have been totally broken down byte by ...
13
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3answers
2k views

How much did the 6502 and Z80 cost?

It is said that the 6502 was cheaper than the Z80. As of 1978, what were the actual prices of the two chips, in wholesale quantity?
16
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2answers
1k views

How did the Trap65 work?

The Wikipedia page on the MOS 6502 mentions a hardware device called the Trap65 which apparently sat between the 6502 and its socket to trap any undocumented opcodes. The wiki page has the usual ...
12
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1answer
1k views

What is the relationship between the Ricoh 2A03 and the MOS 6502?

The Ricoh 2A03 (and the 2A07) is the CPU in the well-known Nintendo Entertainment System. Apparently, the die is very similar indeed, as the slides in this video suggest https://www.youtube.com/watch?...
13
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2answers
945 views

How could high level functions with return values map to 6502 assembly? (if at all possible)

What sort of code could be used to substitute a high level function with a return value to a 6502 subroutine? Take this C-like function for example. byte func(byte a, byte b, byte c) { d = (a + b)...
10
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3answers
668 views

How does 6502 machine code process $ (address) VS #$ (value)?

How does the 6502's machine code process $ vs #$, as in it's assembly language? Does every piece of machine code have an extra byte or something telling to use addresses or values or was it something ...
12
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2answers
527 views

BBC Master 65C102 co-processor — test memory

Out of the blue the other day, my friend found an internal 65C102 co-processor for the BBC Master in his attic, and gave it to me. It wasn't in particularly good physical condition (all the pins were ...