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Questions tagged [assembly]

Assembly languages in general, of any architecture. Use with the particular processor’s tag as appropriate.

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The use of segments in non-relocating assemblers

I've been looking at a bunch of different 6502 assemblers recently (dasm, ca65, xa, kickass), and many of them have support for multiple code segments. Some of these assemblers can generate ...
larsks's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Defining zeropage address labels in xa assembler?

I am trying to use the xa assembler to write some 6502 code. According to the documentation, I can define a zeropage segment using the .zero pseudo-op. I was hoping to do something like this: .zero ...
larsks's user avatar
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15 votes
1 answer
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How can a Z80 assembly program find out the address stored in the SP register?

I'm wondering how to write a program in Z80 assembler that discovers the value stored in the SP register. From what I've seen, the only instructions that touch the SP register are: LD SP, HL/IX/IY EX ...
André Wagner's user avatar
9 votes
3 answers
2k views

Make the "z80asm" assembler place an instruction at a known memory address

I'm writing a very basic OS for my homebrew Z80 computer. As an absolute assembly language beginner, I managed to obtain a working "os plus memory monitor" that can show memory content and ...
penguin86's user avatar
  • 143
-1 votes
3 answers
610 views

c64 copy chars to sprite issue [closed]

How to do correct copying char to sprite ? Lets say 1st char is at $2000 second is at $2008 and copying to sprite at $2480. And with this we can copy 1 char to top left position of 1st sprite. But ...
simun9's user avatar
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22 votes
1 answer
1k views

When did the IBM 650 have a "Table lookup on Equal" instruction?

In 1959, Donald Knuth wrote an assembly program named SuperSoap for the IBM 650. Here is the manual, and here is a listing of the program (in SuperSoap assembly language). Quoting from the abstract: ...
texdr.aft's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
478 views

Is there a way to have the ca65 assembler only expand macros?

I would like to convert an assembly program in ca65 with macros into assembly code with resolved macros in order to carry out manual or automatic optimizations with the resulting code. Then, the ...
Peter B.'s user avatar
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14 votes
2 answers
2k views

How would I reliably detect the amount of RAM, including Fast RAM?

If I was to write an Amiga game, what would be the best/most reliable way to detect how much RAM is actually available? Looking at Action's Guide to AGA-Fixing!, he mentions Faulty Memory Detection: ...
Michael Stum's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
954 views

Labels in cc65 inline assembler with #define macro

In general, it is possible to use inline assembler statements within C macros, for example #define toscreencode(C) (__AX__ = (C), \ asm("cmp #$60"),\ ...
Peter B.'s user avatar
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5 votes
3 answers
3k views

8086 duration of program

I have the following assembly code for 8086 MOV AL, [BX] OUT DX, AL The bus clock frequency is 1MHz. Access to memory is done without WAIT, and to I/O with one WAIT tick. How I can calculate the ...
gameloverr2's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
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Were there "higher level programming" macro packages for the IBM Macro Assembler?

The IBM/360 Macro Assembly language was quite powerful, allowing non-trivial compile-time string manipulation. Did macro packages exist which would facilitate programming at a (slightly) higher level, ...
Leo B.'s user avatar
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13 votes
1 answer
2k views

Difference between INT 0x20 and INT 0x21 (0x4C)?

Checking the MS-DOS interrupt list we see INT 0x20 "Terminate the program" (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DOS_API) but if we check the same page we see INT 0x21 with function 0x4C will &...
cprieto's user avatar
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9 votes
4 answers
1k views

Better way to do Z80 "bank switch & call"?

I have a memory setup where the whole address space can be exchanged (default 2 slots with 2 banks each, but may change depending on "expansion cards" plugged in). Banks are switched by ...
nonchip's user avatar
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22 votes
2 answers
2k views

Where and when did the ".s" suffix for assembly-language source files originate?

The closest I was able to find on StackOverflow is What are .S files?, in which no answerer addresses why we use .s for assembly. (And .S for preprocessor/macro assembly; and gcc -S to produce ...
Quuxplusone's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
879 views

Does a defacto format exist for Commodore 64 SID music?

I first learned about tracker / mod music on my Amiga in the early 1990's. I remember fooling around with Protracker, listening to mods with Intuitracker, and coming to the realization that all those ...
Geo...'s user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
498 views

Why is my program outputting only zeros to the data bus during I/O operations?

I'm building a breadboard Z80-based computer. As now, I have the CPU hooked up to an EEPROM and an I/O device (an HD44780 character display) with appropriate decoding logic. The ROM chip starts at ...
penguin86's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
143 views

6800 I flag at reset

I have written an emulation of the Heathkit ET-3400A microcomputer trainer in Java, mainly to see if I could do it and to get my feet wet in Java. Odd question, but there's a discrepancy (one of many,...
sparkydave's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
1k views

How were games and programs written for the C64 in assembler in the 80s? [duplicate]

Were developers using monitors like e.g. "Supermon+64", "Merlin 64" or "Monitor$C000" and cartridges like "Final Cartridge", "Action Replay" (both of ...
10sys2064's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
501 views

Commodore Plus/4 jiffy clock tied to screen refresh frequency? (warning: flashing images)

Warning: There are flashing images below, do not scroll down if you are sensitive to them! According to various sources (for example this for the Plus/4), both the C64 and Plus/4 have a "jiffy&...
Zoltan's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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Working on programming a retro z80 computer (SDCC error)

I am working on coding a driver of sorts for a Z80 based computer I am making. I am compiling with SDCC and I have been getting the following? ASlink-Warning-Undefined Global 'data' referenced by ...
benjamin black's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
228 views

Help debugging a circuit/code for Z80 and TMS9918ANL

I am working on designing a Z80 computer that utilized the TMS9918ANL for graphics. I am currently just trying to make sure the TMS9918ANL is working, so I hooked up the control pins the bus (...
benjamin black's user avatar
15 votes
2 answers
1k views

Trying to understand some assembly syntax in the Unix v7 write system call

so here is the code: (which comes from here, I've also verified this source is in my unix v7 distribution). For reference, this is running on a PDP-11 simulated with the simh program (so please keep ...
LainIwakura's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
1k views

Z80 PIO Keyboard [closed]

I am working on designing a Z80 computer and I would like to use a PS/2 Keyboard for input. I would like to use a PIO to communicate with it, but I am having trouble finding any documentation online ...
benjamin black's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
554 views

How to implement a 'write' function in pdp-11 / MACRO-11 / ODT using simh?

So, I'm working on a project where I'm aiming to get the first winner of the IOCCC (obfuscated c code contest) dissected down to the last detail... The program is mullender.c which you can find by ...
LainIwakura's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
639 views

Using Bresenham's circle algorithm (or another alternative algorithm) to draw an arc [closed]

I'm trying to create some graphics function for a ZX Spectrum (Z80) machine in assembler. I already have the basics except for the arc. I know that there must be some way to draw an arc using the ...
Gusman's user avatar
  • 129
9 votes
1 answer
2k views

On the LR35902, what does the assembly 'LD (HL-),A' do?

I'm working on implementing the instructions of the z80 chip inside a gameboy for an emulator. I'm starting with the instructions in the boot rom that sets everything up. I've implemented the first 3 ...
Corey Ogburn's user avatar
37 votes
9 answers
9k views

When and why did high-level language compilers start targeting assembly language rather than machine code?

From what I've read, the first FORTRAN compiler built a machine-code program entirely in memory; it was, in fact, designed to read the entire source code of the program, and then sequentially load ...
supercat's user avatar
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12 votes
2 answers
702 views

How do I tell vasm to allow white spaces?

I have recently been learning to use vasm. For those that don't know, vasm is a cross-platform assembler for multiple types of processors such as the M68000. http://sun.hasenbraten.de/vasm/ I am ...
cbmeeks's user avatar
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12 votes
3 answers
816 views

Do any 6502 assemblers have better support for self-modifying code?

I find I keep on doing things like this: raster_interrupt: bgnd_color = * + 1 lda #$00 sta $d021 ; rest of interrupt handler so that I can do this kind of thing elsewhere in my ...
Omar and Lorraine's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
744 views

Were all NES games 16 kibibytes or less?

While searching on the Internet and Quora, I found disassemblers for Pac-Man, Galaxian, and Super Mario Bros. The thing that puzzled me, was while Super Mario Bros was arguably quite a complex game ...
Nip Dip's user avatar
  • 341
22 votes
3 answers
4k views

Was there any automated unit testing prior to 1972?

Prior to 1972, was there any automated unit-testing? Did any assemblers include a testing a framework? I can find some academic journals on this topic from the late 70s -- most of which I don't have ...
Evan Carroll's user avatar
  • 3,388
42 votes
16 answers
10k views

What "unusual" syntax assembly languages are/were there?

This question may have the apparent form of a question soliciting a "list" answer, but I'm expecting the list to be very short, so please bear with me. What "unusual" syntax ...
dave's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
2k views

What 6800 assembler to use?

Does anyone know of a good, modern Motorola 6800 assembler? I've used dasm, which I quite like (and it's even actively developed), but it doesn't actually support 6800. It supports 6803, which is ...
tobiasvl's user avatar
  • 1,539
11 votes
1 answer
344 views

Inverting the carry flag on an M6800

Are there any tricks that can be used to invert the carry flag on the 6800, in as few bytes as possible? This is the shortest subroutine I've come up with, which is straight forward: INVC: BCS ...
tobiasvl's user avatar
  • 1,539
3 votes
3 answers
726 views

How to transfer the address of a data block into zero page using the Merlin 8 assembler on my Apple //e?

I've been fooling around with the Merlin 8 (v2.58) assembler on my Apple IIe and ran into a small snag. Basically, I would like to load the address of a block of data into a two-byte pair in zero ...
Geo...'s user avatar
  • 10.2k
11 votes
2 answers
2k views

Best learning path for Apple IIe assembly language [closed]

I have an emulator up and running and access to the asimov ftp site, and I want to learn how to program assembly language on the Apple IIe. What assembler should I use (Merlin? LISA?) and what book or ...
Al Gorithm's user avatar
11 votes
3 answers
2k views

How can I access/use memory outside of the standard 1 MB address range of MS-DOS?

How do you access more memory (above the 1MB) in DOS if the 640KB of conventional memory are not enough? I have read a lot about this, but I couldn't figure out how to do this in actual code. Is ...
DarkAtom's user avatar
  • 2,337
5 votes
3 answers
496 views

Did the Apollo Guidance Computer or other multi-ROM machines subdivide code between ROM chips/modules to facilitate partial updates?

The Apollo Guidance Computer had its code stored in six modules that held 6 kwords of storage each, and the design of each module was such that changing even a single bit after construction would have ...
supercat's user avatar
  • 37k
8 votes
4 answers
2k views

Imaging a HDD from DOS over Serial

I have recently fixed an old IBM Clone, which has an MFM hard drive. The PC booted up fine, but then I saw, that a few years back, I have deleted a few important files (probably by mistake). The ...
Xyz's user avatar
  • 363
2 votes
5 answers
3k views

How binaries are generated using Punched cards? [duplicate]

I thought that punched cards already represent the code in binary since a hole means 0 and rest positions mean 1 on a punched card. But then I read that you could use punched cards to present the ...
user2756695's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
633 views

Performing 16-bit port I/O on the RTC

Why can’t the RTC (0x70, 0x71) read and write 16 bits at a time? For example: mov ax, 0xa8f out 0x70, ax I have found in a 286 BIOS that did this (BIOS ID string: S286-6181-...
lgj1107's user avatar
  • 61
62 votes
7 answers
12k views

Why did the MS-DOS API choose software interrupts for its interface?

Access to the DOS API was done through the INT 21h x86 instruction. This was always counter-intuitive to me, coming from 8-bit systems that accessed system services by calling subroutines through a ...
Brian H's user avatar
  • 60.8k
10 votes
2 answers
868 views

Zilog Z80 estimated time discrepancy

I am writing a basic Zilog Z80 assembly language interpreter and something I noticed as I went through the 8 bit load commands is that the estimated times for LD (IX+d), n and LD (IY+d), n are ...
mwarren's user avatar
  • 203
16 votes
12 answers
8k views

How can a Z80 assembly program find out its own memory address?

I'm wondering how to write a program in Z80 assembler that discovers its own memory location. I thought that maybe I could somehow load the program counter PC into, for example, BC. Is there a way ...
twisted's user avatar
  • 263
4 votes
3 answers
396 views

ca65 vs tass syntax: converting a hex address to decimal?

Most of the tass example programs start with a header like this, which places BASIC code at the beginning of the file that has an appropriate SYS instruction to run the rest of the application: * ...
larsks's user avatar
  • 426
5 votes
2 answers
2k views

Adding a register to the accumulator in 6502

In the past, the only assembly programming I've done has been a tiny bit of ARM, and then a larger game project in 68k. In 68k I was used to being able to do things like add.l d0, d1 to add the ...
Matt Lacey's user avatar
  • 2,320
11 votes
2 answers
2k views

Putting code into two different memory areas with cc65/ca65

According to cc65 / ca65 documentation, the .org directive does not affect the placement of the code unlike with other 6502 assemblers. The docs suggest defining a memory segment with the intended ...
Peter B.'s user avatar
  • 4,387
2 votes
1 answer
564 views

In vasm 1.7d targeting 68000, how to assemble with program counter at specific address without padding?

I'm programming for the Sega Mega Drive using vasm 1.7d assembler. I'm copying a block of my code from ROM to RAM so I can do some self-modifying code. ; First $200 bytes are header, dc.b ...
Gero's user avatar
  • 199
31 votes
3 answers
7k views

Why didn't the 6502 have increment/decrement opcodes for A?

In 6502 Assembly, we can use INX and INY to increase the value stored in X and Y. They can be decreased with DEX and DEY. However, it seems that there are no such instructions for A, like INA or DEA. ...
LuNa's user avatar
  • 588
17 votes
5 answers
2k views

Has there ever been a instruction set architecture that did not require instruction decoding at all?

I am studying basic principles of instruction set architectures and am considering what it would take to not have any instruction decoding at all. I.e., all the control lines of the computer would be ...
Gunther Schadow's user avatar