Questions tagged [programming]

For questions about programming languages and constructs. For questions about specific languages please check for language-specific tags first, and use those instead.

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6
votes
2answers
632 views

Were any DOS games (or software) known to use VBE/AF?

Were there any MS-DOS games or graphics software that were known to take advantage of VESA BIOS Extensions/Accelerator Functions (VBE/AF)? some of the functions defined in the standard are ... Bit ...
10
votes
1answer
369 views

Why didn't Wozniak's interrupts work on the Apple I monitor program?

In his autobiography, Steve Wozniak recounts[1] his difficulty getting interrupts working on the 6502 microprocessor: The next step was to debug the 256-byte monitor program on the PROMs. I spent ...
5
votes
3answers
394 views

How to use HGR2 (or HGR) on an Apple II

I am a big fan of the TV show lost, and I was trying to make the Dharma Initiative logo. But at certain point I couldn't add new lines of code and the final part of the logo was cut off. I tried to ...
5
votes
3answers
1k views

What was the earliest microcomputer Logo language implementation?

Wikipedia has a long list of Logo implementations, but I'd like to know what the earliest implementation is on a microcomputer, or, more likely, what are the earliest ones if there isn't one with ...
2
votes
2answers
327 views

emulator library that allows to partially emulate old games [closed]

EDIT: previously I added a lot of examples to this questions. I removed the examples, because the question was voted to be "too broad", so I put more emphasis on the question again. Question: Is ...
2
votes
1answer
482 views

What programming languages appeared in 1961?

I'm trying to get Programming Languages Through The Years over on the Code Golf site going again. The Wikipedia article that the challenge has been working from only lists COMIT for 1961, and calling ...
37
votes
8answers
7k views

What was the point of separating stdout and stderr?

I occasionally need to work with console commands and 100% of the time I want to redirect my output to a file I fail to redirect stderr as well as stdout the first time. I can't think of a single ...
66
votes
5answers
12k views

Why wasn't ASCII designed with a contiguous alphanumeric character order?

Anyone who has dealt with strings at a low level (e.g., writing a parser in C), knows that doing so tends to involve frequent checks of—either manually, or through isalpha(), isalnum(), etc—whether a ...
10
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2answers
496 views

Why are my VGA vram to vram copies so slow?

I'm doing some mode x programming and I noticed that my vram to vram copies are much slower than I expected. My copying method was described by Michael Abrash in his Graphics Programming Black Book ...
7
votes
2answers
514 views

Is there data for programming language popularity pre year 2000?

Besides the TIOBE Index, which ranks programming language popularity by search engine hits and seems to have data reaching back to the year 2001, are there other sources with some form of measure for ...
51
votes
6answers
11k views

How did old MS-DOS games utilize various graphic cards?

Nowadays each graphic card has some driver in operating system that translates some (typically) standard API such as OpenGL, so that programmers use some standardized API code to tell graphics cards ...
8
votes
1answer
856 views

What was the first programming language to have 'printf'?

I'm curious as to which language was the first to literally have a formatted text output procedure called 'printf'. A trivial question, sure, but I was prompted to ask by a recent question on ZSPL. ...
14
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9answers
2k views

What is the most rudimentary input method a platform has ever been programmed in?

A while ago I did read on the web a page whose topic was more or less: Real men write [insert lowest level language here] (a similar page would be this Reddit thread) If we quickly tour some of the ...
17
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3answers
2k views

Is there a way to get a compiler for the original B programming language?

I am learning about the original B programming language, but I don't have a compiler. Is there an emulator for an old computer that can run an old operating system that have a compiler for the ...
6
votes
3answers
454 views

Did the BCPL programming language support floats?

Did the BCPL programming language support floating point? If not, then how did programmers use it to add two floating point numbers?
5
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1answer
237 views

How to add an “int” to a “float” in the B programming language?

C has data types, so if you add an int to a float, for example: int i = 1; float f = 2.5; float r = i + f; The C compiler will know that it should generate machine instructions that adds an int to a ...
22
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10answers
5k views

Was Objective-C really a hindrance to Apple software development? [closed]

I have heard stories from some of the greybeards I have met on the Internet that Objective-C was by all accounts a nightmare to work with. Was that just a thing about all the low-level languages of ...
1
vote
2answers
243 views

What was the first language compiler to support subtype polymorphism? [closed]

I'm trying to understand the history of Dependency Injection in compiled languages, as an intentional feature of the language. The Wikipedia article on the subject is decidedly Java focused, but I ...
2
votes
1answer
142 views

Decoding the Workings of the TRS-80 BASIC Game “Escape!”

I've decided to port Chase! to Swift, apparently because I am insane. In any event, I'm trying to collect the various switches in versions from the era. One of these is unique, found here under the ...
2
votes
0answers
138 views

Looking for Complex Algorithms to Demonstrate Ascota 170 Capabilities

I am restoring the Ascota 170 antique mechanical programmable computer. It is already working. Now I’m looking for an algorithm to demonstrate its capabilities — like calculating trigonometric or ...
3
votes
0answers
131 views

How did the template cache in CFront work?

I've seen some discussion of how templates were historically implemented in CFront around the web, including here. The link describes the Borland model, which is familiar, and the CFront model with a ...
4
votes
3answers
277 views

What was the DOS FAT12 720k floppy raw disk format structure?

I am looking for detailed info on the low-level floppy disk structure of an MSDOS-compatible 720k Double Sided Double Density disk. Stuff like GAP/SYNC patterns, ID and CRC Field structure, standard ...
5
votes
2answers
283 views

How was dataflow analysis performed before SSA?

If we look at something like LLVM or the GNU Compiler Collection, Dalvik and many others, their intermediate representation (IR) uses SSA (Static Single Assignment form), as part of their Data-Flow ...
32
votes
6answers
10k views

Which was the first programming language that had data types?

Machine language (and Assembly language) don't have the concept of data types, so if you want to add an int and a float variables in Assembly, you have to use the appropriate Assembly instruction that ...
1
vote
1answer
263 views

What don't I understand about this LR35902 code?

The question you are now reading is about a comment on this question, about overflow bugs in some Pokemon game. A comment on that question says: It was Game Freak's first project. They just were ...
1
vote
8answers
994 views

Are there any old and nowadays active Operating Systems which has only BASIC Programming Language?

Some old Operating Systems I hear have only BASIC Programming Language. Are there any active and old operating systems which includes only BASIC Programming Language?
3
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2answers
525 views

EGA style 16 color dithering

I am trying to write a program in C# that will re-create the type of dithering used in many of the old sierra and Lucas arts games. I have looked up many different dithering algorithms and none seem ...
1
vote
1answer
246 views

How to read disk files using CBM specific functions in cc65 with proper error checking

TL:DR What is the reason my kernel_read() function ignoring file errors? I'm trying to understand how to work with files in cc65 using CBM specific functions. My target is Commodore 64 with 1541 ...
9
votes
4answers
940 views

First language designed to be embedded?

Some languages like Python, Lua, and Tcl are designed with the intention that you can easily embed the interpreter into some other native program. For example, many VFX applications like Nuke, Maya, ...
3
votes
1answer
522 views

Where can I find macrofun.hlp?

In the days before Visual Basic for Applications, the macro language for Microsoft Excel was called XLL. The syntax was similar to that of ordinary Excel formulas, except for two things: Macros were ...
15
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2answers
2k views

First language with C-like memory management

This is a nerd question but I can’t find anything in google. So, in which programming language did the classical memory management system first be implemented? I mean the division into value types (...
4
votes
1answer
385 views

Was there ever a home PC which ran JOVIAL?

We are having a frank exchange of views here in the office. We were discussing the heydays of home PCs, back in the early 80s, when there were a plethora to choose from, most running some form of ...
18
votes
2answers
805 views

What's a good way to implement this “splashing water” effect on the C64?

This pillow fighting game set in Venice depicts the two opponents fighting on a wobbly gondola on a canal. It was apparently known as "Pillow Fight" in English and as "Kissenschlacht" in German, and ...
16
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2answers
1k views

6502 branch offset calculation

This question expands on How does the 6502 implement its branch instructions? I'm working on a cycle accurate VHDL implementation on an FPGA. I have much of the program logic already written, but I ...
4
votes
0answers
232 views

How to use IIgs enhanced graphics modes in AppleSoft BASIC with System 6?

There are many packages that let you use the enhanced graphics modes of the IIgs in AppleSoft BASIC. However most packages like Iconix do not like System 6 so they have to run off disks and not the ...
10
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4answers
2k views

What are the rules for Applesoft BASIC formatting for code?

What are the rules for Applesoft BASIC formatting for code? I've been doing some BASIC coding and noticed that: 10 input "some question?"; name$ Will be reformatted as: 10 INPUT "some question?";...
3
votes
4answers
602 views

Was there ever a compiler type that was just large enough to contain a memory segment?

From this answer, Hark back to the days of segmented 16-bit architectures for example: an array might be limited to a single segment (so a 16-bit size_t would do) BUT you could have multiple ...
13
votes
8answers
3k views

Uses for the halt instruction?

What was the halt instruction in early CPUs such as the Z80 and 8080 used for? Here's a description of the Z80 instruction: The HALT instruction suspends CPU operation until a interrupt or reset ...
18
votes
6answers
3k views

What caused the downfall of Pascal? [closed]

From 1985 to 1990 Borland's Turbo Pascal was at least as popular as C for DOS systems. Turbo Pascal was especially popular because of it's ground breaking BGI graphics interface while C was stalled in ...
13
votes
1answer
698 views

Fortran variable type defaults - origin

In older versions of Fortran, e.g. 77, variables did not need to be declared. If the name starts with I, J, K, L, M, or N then it would be assumed to be an INTEGER. Otherwise, it would be assumed to ...
2
votes
1answer
675 views

Is it possible to make VICE load .prg files faster?

When I load a C64 .prg with the Hoxs64 emulator, my .prg loads pretty much instantly. But when I load the same .prg file with VICE (x64 app.prg) it takes quite a while (depends on memory map, but ...
2
votes
1answer
217 views

Is it possible to use the BRK instruction when ROM is banked out?

I used to use the BRK instruction when debugging on the C64. However, when I bank out ROM with... lda #$35 // Bank out kernal and basic sta $01 // $e000-$ffff ...the BRK instruction (...
12
votes
3answers
2k views

What's a good way to implement this “fade” effect on C64

See the beginning of https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hmfLBAtGAKk. Here's a screenshot: It basically clears characters pixel by pixel both horizontally and vertically. Use sprites for the pixel by ...
2
votes
3answers
957 views

Reading both keyboard and joystick with non-KERNAL code on C64

I'm implementing non-KERNAL joystick and keyboard controls for my Commodore 64 game. I used to use the KERNAL SCNKEY routine earlier to read keyboard and it worked well with my joystick port 2 code. ...
29
votes
5answers
7k views

Why was nil defined as a reserved word in Pascal?

In Pascal, nil (the pointer value to "nothing") is a reserved word. Why wasn't it simply a predefined identifier as true and false are, for example? This is stated in PASCAL User Manual and Report p....
34
votes
4answers
12k views

Who is credited for the creation of Assembly Language?

The C Programming Language was originally developed by Dennis Ritchie who also co-designed the Unix operating system with which development of the language was closely intertwined. Is there a ...
26
votes
7answers
12k views

How can you run a program that is bigger than RAM?

Suppose you have a program that is 218 words long. However you are using a 16 bit machine and have 216 words of RAM. (The RAM is directly addressed by the CPU). On the other hand, you have unlimited '...
6
votes
2answers
445 views

What books did schools use to teach BASIC?

What books would have been used to teach school aged kids BASIC in a classroom setting back when BASIC was in common use? 8-Bit computers commonly came with tutorials to learn BASIC, like A Touch of ...
12
votes
3answers
3k views

Native C compiler for Sinclair ZX Spectrum

I am looking for a native C compiler for the Spectrum 128. I would like one which: Has good support for the latest C standard at the time. Is not limited to compiling ridiculously short source code. ...
7
votes
2answers
8k views

Best path to learn C64 assembly [closed]

The amount of tutorials, youtube videos, scanned books on C64 programming is overwhelming. What materials would you recommend -- and, importantly, in what order! -- to build a path to programming my ...