Questions tagged [programming]

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5
votes
1answer
305 views

Why does the Applesoft BASIC have shapes?

Why did Apple include shapes in Applesoft BASIC? There are no sprites on the Apple II, but shapes provide a simple vector drawing tool. As graphics go the shapes are kind of an odd duck, they provide ...
7
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1answer
265 views

How did old car games, using “sprite illusions”, function on a technical level?

Example: https://youtu.be/E9QJZSBpvg0?t=80 The road turns not only left and right, like in the classic Pole Position, but also goes up and down. Other than the cars and the road, there are numerous ...
0
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0answers
44 views

How to burn CDTV extended ROM image to eeproms

I have a patched version of CDTV extended rom, which I need to burn to 2 chips. I have 2 ST M27C1000 with pin swap adapter (pins 2 & 24 - M27C1001), TL866 mini pro programmer, hex editor and I was ...
2
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1answer
185 views

How to get started with writing drivers for amiga OS

I would like to learn how to write drivers for Amiga OS. Seems like a daunting task, but I have spare time and I find great value for amiga (CDTV) community in particular. Currently if a CD ROM breaks ...
50
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1answer
6k views

How was collision detection done on the Asteroids arcade game?

In honor of today's landing of and sample collection by the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft on the asteroid Bennu: How did the arcade game Asteroids detect collisions between the screen objects (player's ship, ...
3
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2answers
234 views

Is there any documentation for programming Microsoft Windows Sound System sound cards?

I'm programming my own sound mixing engine and drivers for MS-DOS, but I can't find any documentation for programming for Microsoft Windows Sound System interface sound cards. Was there any ...
2
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2answers
171 views

Why isn't this invocation of XMS function Move EMB 0Bh in Turbo C correct?

Following on from my last question, I cannot get Move Extended Memory Block (Function 0Bh) working in Turbo C 2.01. The following main.c contains only the minimum functions: get the XMS driver pointer,...
4
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3answers
522 views

How can I force Turbo Assembler to use multiple passes when invoked from Turbo C?

I'm using Turbo C and Turbo Assembler 2.01 to write a C wrapper around the XMS interface so I can use XMS memory in real mode, large model. I've started by writing the following: #include <dos.h>...
4
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2answers
415 views

How can I malloc() a block that's guaranteed to lie within a single DMA segment in Turbo C 2.01?

I'm following root42's videos about DOS programming using Turbo C 2.01. I've written my own Soundblaster 1.xx driver following the Creative Labs documentation, and I'm confused about memory allocation....
9
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4answers
1k views

What were the first BASIC interpreters to be programmed in high-level languages?

I've been continuing to revise and expand the Wikipedia article that I started on BASIC interpreters. One of the criticisms was that it was too focused on the microcomputer era (which interested me ...
5
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3answers
303 views

Was this FORTRAN “extension” originated by IBM?

This question has been prompted by a recent question about the assigned GOTO operator. It appears that some early FORTRAN implementations supported a non-obvious construct: using an indexed variable ...
17
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2answers
2k views

When did FORTRAN decide on signed integers?

I have personally always been of the opinion that it would make sense for the default integer type to be unsigned, though it's been a long time since that would've been a live issue for debate; C in ...
15
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2answers
2k views

Looking for information on a programming language called WhatDoesItDo

I am looking for information on a training language called "WhatDoesItDo". It was used in 1978 at Austin Community College on a Motorola 6800 CPU. If anyone has any information, I would ...
3
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2answers
232 views

Is there a way to blank out a portion of a screen on Commdore C64?

I would like to blank out a couple of lines between two given rasterlines. Above that I'm planning to have a scrolling background and sprites, below that is a textual info area. I'm thinking of a ...
4
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1answer
235 views

Back in the day, were games coded to run better with more (not faster) RAM? [closed]

Let's say the year is 1999 or something like that. I have a PC with 400 MHz, no graphics accelerator and 64 MB RAM, and try to run some Need for Speed game or something. I notice that it goes laggy. ...
17
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1answer
497 views

Was the IBM S/360 Responsible for Popularizating the 'A'-to-'F' Notation in Hexadecimal Numbers?

In the early history of computing before the mid-1960s, there wasn't an universal, de-facto standard for the written representation of a hexadecimal number, different computer systems used their own ...
7
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2answers
811 views

How can I programmatically determine whether an Apple II .dsk disk image is a DOS .do image or a ProDOS .po image?

I'm interested in working with the most common Apple II disk image file format, .dsk. (I only programmed these machines briefly in Basic around 1979-81 and have not been in the emulator scene, so I'm ...
2
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1answer
64 views

What is the layout of the directory track on a TRS-80 Model I/Model III disk?

I've decided to add support for some more classic Z80 computers I used to use to my Ghidra modules, and the first Z80 systems I used were the TRS-80 model I and model III. I've found documentation ...
9
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2answers
1k views

What was the first preprocessor for a programming language?

A preprocessor is a tool that takes source code as input and outputs a modified version of it for input to a downstream tool, such as a compiler or interpreter. Preprocessors can be used to implement ...
2
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1answer
106 views

Are there open source Java libraries for reading DSK and EDSK disk image files as used by Amstrad and Spectrum +3 emulators?

I've been working on some modules for the Ghidra reverse engineering tool. Ghidra is written in Java, which I'd always avoided when I was more actively programming so this is an opportunity to learn ...
27
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2answers
9k views

What is this programming language having PROC, DCL, LABEL keywords?

A 1980 paper called "Register Allocation via Coloring" contains something that looks like source code: P: PROC(MODE); DCL MODE BIT(1), (A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,A6,A7,A8,A9,A10, B1,B2,B3,...
23
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7answers
4k views

Was it possible programmatically to manipulate the volume as well as the pitch on computers with no sound chip?

On early versions of many 8-bit computers like the Apple II, Spectrum, and even the IBM PC, there was no sound hardware other than the simple "beeper". Programmers made sound by hitting a hardware ...
12
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2answers
714 views

Did the Commodore 128's Z80 CPU also have full access to the machine's custom hardware?

The C128 was a C64 with an extra CPU as well as extra memory. But the second CPU was a Zilog Z80 while the primary was the usual Commodore CPU, a MOS 6502. The Z80 was there so that CP/M software ...
5
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2answers
416 views

How did Microsoft get away with JScript? [closed]

How exactly did Microsoft reverse engineer Brendan Eich's JavaScript, call it something else and not get a massive lawsuit in the aftermath? I understand this was a long time ago but I still wonder ...
9
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1answer
452 views

Can you program an arcade game and have MAME or another emu run it?

I know Mame works with drivers for each game or hardware, and it checks for specific ROMs, and I guess it might check also for some checksum to verify the ROMs integrity. Is there some way you could ...
13
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1answer
462 views

Did Babbage's Analytical Engine lack indirect addressing?

As I understand it the analytical engine could only refer to memory by variable cards that had the explicit address printed on them, see https://www.fourmilab.ch/babbage/cards.html. For instance the ...
20
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3answers
3k views

How were the 70's and 80's coin-op programmed?

How were the 70's and 80's coin-op programmed? What tools did a programmer use? Nowadays a programmer can use a PC, an IDE to program, test, use breakpoint... but in the 80s? How could a programmer ...
31
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3answers
3k views

How did Elite do vertex transformation?

In 3D graphics, vertex transformation is the process of converting x,y,z coordinates in 3D space, to x,y coordinates on the screen. According to https://www.khronos.org/opengl/wiki/...
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5answers
885 views

What was the first introduction of callback concept of programming?

Although I seriously code with computer languages in general since 2010 and as an amateur programmer with programming languages in particular since 2015 (primarily Bash and JavaScript imperative ...
-6
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1answer
318 views

What is the maximum 64 bit integer (number) value? [closed]

I already know that the maximum integers for ranges higher than 24-bit (16 777 216) will very likely exceed 1 000 000 000, so, what is the maximum 64 bit integer? It is larger than 10 bilion?
7
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2answers
948 views

Were any DOS games (or software) known to use VBE/AF?

Were there any MS-DOS games or graphics software that were known to take advantage of VESA BIOS Extensions/Accelerator Functions (VBE/AF)? some of the functions defined in the standard are ... Bit ...
11
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1answer
487 views

Why didn't Wozniak's interrupts work on the Apple I monitor program?

In his autobiography, Steve Wozniak recounts[1] his difficulty getting interrupts working on the 6502 microprocessor: The next step was to debug the 256-byte monitor program on the PROMs. I spent ...
5
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3answers
513 views

How to use HGR2 (or HGR) on an Apple II

I am a big fan of the TV show lost, and I was trying to make the Dharma Initiative logo. But at certain point I couldn't add new lines of code and the final part of the logo was cut off. I tried to ...
8
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4answers
1k views

What was the earliest microcomputer Logo language implementation?

Wikipedia has a long list of Logo implementations, but I'd like to know what the earliest implementation is on a microcomputer, or, more likely, what are the earliest ones if there isn't one with ...
2
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2answers
344 views

emulator library that allows to partially emulate old games [closed]

EDIT: previously I added a lot of examples to this questions. I removed the examples, because the question was voted to be "too broad", so I put more emphasis on the question again. Question: Is ...
2
votes
1answer
561 views

What programming languages appeared in 1961?

I'm trying to get Programming Languages Through The Years over on the Code Golf site going again. The Wikipedia article that the challenge has been working from only lists COMIT for 1961, and calling ...
39
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8answers
7k views

What was the point of separating stdout and stderr?

I occasionally need to work with console commands and 100% of the time I want to redirect my output to a file I fail to redirect stderr as well as stdout the first time. I can't think of a single ...
69
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5answers
12k views

Why wasn't ASCII designed with a contiguous alphanumeric character order?

Anyone who has dealt with strings at a low level (e.g., writing a parser in C), knows that doing so tends to involve frequent checks of—either manually, or through isalpha(), isalnum(), etc—whether a ...
10
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2answers
695 views

Why are my VGA vram to vram copies so slow?

I'm doing some mode x programming and I noticed that my vram to vram copies are much slower than I expected. My copying method was described by Michael Abrash in his Graphics Programming Black Book ...
8
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2answers
714 views

Is there data for programming language popularity pre year 2000?

Besides the TIOBE Index, which ranks programming language popularity by search engine hits and seems to have data reaching back to the year 2001, are there other sources with some form of measure for ...
55
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6answers
12k views

How did old MS-DOS games utilize various graphic cards?

Nowadays each graphic card has some driver in operating system that translates some (typically) standard API such as OpenGL, so that programmers use some standardized API code to tell graphics cards ...
10
votes
1answer
1k views

What was the first programming language to have 'printf'?

I'm curious as to which language was the first to literally have a formatted text output procedure called 'printf'. A trivial question, sure, but I was prompted to ask by a recent question on ZSPL. ...
14
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9answers
2k views

What is the most rudimentary input method a platform has ever been programmed in?

A while ago I did read on the web a page whose topic was more or less: Real men write [insert lowest level language here] (a similar page would be this Reddit thread) If we quickly tour some of the ...
17
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3answers
2k views

Is there a way to get a compiler for the original B programming language?

I am learning about the original B programming language, but I don't have a compiler. Is there an emulator for an old computer that can run an old operating system that have a compiler for the ...
7
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3answers
567 views

Did the BCPL programming language support floats?

Did the BCPL programming language support floating point? If not, then how did programmers use it to add two floating point numbers?
7
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1answer
295 views

How to add an “int” to a “float” in the B programming language?

C has data types, so if you add an int to a float, for example: int i = 1; float f = 2.5; float r = i + f; The C compiler will know that it should generate machine instructions that adds an int to a ...
22
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10answers
5k views

Was Objective-C really a hindrance to Apple software development? [closed]

I have heard stories from some of the greybeards I have met on the Internet that Objective-C was by all accounts a nightmare to work with. Was that just a thing about all the low-level languages of ...
1
vote
2answers
251 views

What was the first language compiler to support subtype polymorphism? [closed]

I'm trying to understand the history of Dependency Injection in compiled languages, as an intentional feature of the language. The Wikipedia article on the subject is decidedly Java focused, but I ...
2
votes
1answer
182 views

Decoding the Workings of the TRS-80 BASIC Game “Escape!”

I've decided to port Chase! to Swift, apparently because I am insane. In any event, I'm trying to collect the various switches in versions from the era. One of these is unique, found here under the ...
2
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0answers
146 views

Looking for Complex Algorithms to Demonstrate Ascota 170 Capabilities

I am restoring the Ascota 170 antique mechanical programmable computer. It is already working. Now I’m looking for an algorithm to demonstrate its capabilities — like calculating trigonometric or ...