All Questions

-5
votes
2answers
568 views

Which computers / consoles used the 6502 and 65816 chipsets? [closed]

The Apple II and Commodore 64 are the obvious ones but which other computer systems used the 6502 and 65816 chips?
8
votes
3answers
1k views

What is the maximum amount of memory that can be added to an Apple IIGS?

I thought it was 4 Megabytes but I can see there are 8 Megabyte expansion cards. Is that the maximum? And is that an addressing/bank limit or a limit of the slot?
52
votes
7answers
11k views

Why use static RAM addresses instead of the stack?

I'm studying the 65c816 assembly for the 1994 game, Super Metroid. A hobbyist studied the game in-depth and created a RAM map. From it: 7E:0B56 - 7E:0B57 Moves Samus this distance horizontally, ...
13
votes
1answer
303 views

What FSTs (File System Translators) exist for the Apple IIGS?

Apple supplied some, were there others that other people wrote? What is the complete list of FSTs available?
31
votes
1answer
2k views

What soviet computer used trinary bits?

Discussing 'non-standard byte sizes' with co-workers today, one mentioned hearing of soviet experiments with computers that used three-state bytes - and not just what is common today, 0, 1 and High ...
17
votes
2answers
529 views

How many versions of DOS were there for the Apple II and what were the differences?

DOS 3.3 was the most common before ProDOS. How did it differ to DOS 3.2 and what versions were there before that?
8
votes
1answer
102 views

Digisector DS-69 video digitizer

The DS-69 was a cartridge you could plug into the computer to digitize a composite video source. It fully supported writing images to floppy disks. Can the DS-69 (A or B) be used with Y-Cable? The ...
24
votes
3answers
927 views

Absolute maximum number of nibbles on an Apple II floppy disk track?

The Apple 2's disk drive controller and 5¼" floppy disks have the following metrics: The disks is spun at (roughly) 300 RPM (Revolutions per Minute), which means it takes = 1000 ms/sec / (300 RPM / ...
13
votes
1answer
204 views

What happens on a VT102 when you use delete character on a reverse video line?

On a DEC VT102, suppose you have a line where all 80 characters (in particular, the rightmost character) are in reverse video. You then move the cursor to the start of that line and use DCH (ESC [ P) ...
13
votes
6answers
501 views

Did any microcomputers back in the day accellerate standard-cassette performance

Many commonplace cassette recorders in the 1970s and 1980s were capable of reading or writing two tracks at once (stereo). While that wasn't universal (portable cassette recorders were often monaural,...
24
votes
1answer
3k views

What do the keys on this Symbolics Space Cadet keyboard do?

Old keyboards like the one below seem to have contributed a lot to the design of modern keyboards. So, obviously, some of the keys are familiar because they are on my own average (modern Windows and ...
16
votes
4answers
661 views

How were binary subroutines embedded in Integer BASIC programs?

Programs written in Apple's Integer BASIC sometimes had bits of machine code embedded in them. This was more convenient than loading the code separately, especially when the program was loaded from ...
14
votes
4answers
3k views

How can I emulate MS-DOS on OS X?

I am looking for a emulator for MS-DOS for OS X to run old games on. Are there any free emulators for MS-DOS that run on an Apple machine with OS X?
13
votes
2answers
655 views

The Tandy/TRS-80 Multipack Interface (MPI)

A popular, but, much maligned bus expansion device for the CoCo was the venerable MPI. There were several companies who made bus expasion devices for the CoCo, however, this question is related ...
26
votes
4answers
1k views

Why were early versions of BASIC different?

Most major computer manufacturers/distributors in the 70's and 80's included BASIC with their computers. Some (as answers to this great question have detailed: Why was BASIC built into so many ...
8
votes
1answer
294 views

What software supported the Mockingboard on the Apple II?

Is there a list somewhere? Might be nice to compile a list here. I'm assuming mostly games but also music and educational software made use of it.
75
votes
18answers
15k views

Why was BASIC built into so many operating systems?

There are a lot of retro-computers with BASIC as an integral part of the operating system. The IBM 5100 was one of the first computers with a separate memory space for BASIC, followed by the Commodore ...
21
votes
5answers
3k views

Over its lifetime, how many Apple II computers were sold?

It would be nice to break it down by model if possible.
9
votes
3answers
1k views

What Commodore 64 emulator and assembler to use? [closed]

I'm about to do some assembly coding for the C64 but for sanity I would like to do the actual coding on my Mac with an emulator. My question is; which is the most maintained/up-to-date emulator/...
24
votes
1answer
2k views

How do Amiga 600 CPU accelerators work?

The Amiga 1200 has a trapdoor expansion for CPU accelerators. The Amiga 500 has a side expansion port and its CPU is socketed. But Amiga 600's expansion port is only useful for memory expansion ...
12
votes
5answers
3k views

Looking for a Z80 simulator/emulator for Linux

I've seen simulators for the 8085 (i.e., sim8085) but not the Zilog Z80. Is there a similar sort of editor/assembler/compiler/debugger simulator for the Z80?
16
votes
4answers
1k views

Is there a Linux client for Amiga Explorer?

I have some Amigas that I would like to be able to transfer files to/from using my primary desktop machine, a PC running Linux. My Amigas do have CrossDOS installed, but transferring things in 720K ...
19
votes
4answers
3k views

How did the Amiga 500 left-side expansion port work?

On the Amiga 500 there is an expansion port How did the expansion port work?
11
votes
3answers
642 views

First computer/video game in history

I would like to learn a bit about the first games that were ever played on a computer-like device. It may be a digital computer, a console, an embedded chip or micro-controller or even something ...
15
votes
3answers
5k views

How can I adapt a modern mouse for use with Amiga?

Death of the Amiga platform predated introduction of optical mice of reasonable quality by a couple years. The Amiga mouse was a box of problems, with non-ergonomic shape, crud-accumulating rollers ...
9
votes
3answers
321 views

How to clean an old computer ball-mouse

I have an old mouse from a old HP computer which I am using with one of those PS2-to-USB converter cables. The problem is that the mouse has changed its color a bit over the years and is now a bit ...
11
votes
2answers
488 views

How can you tell if JiffyDOS is installed on a drive without opening it?

Is it possible (and if so, how) to tell if a drive has JiffyDOS installed without opening it and looking for the chip?
11
votes
2answers
143 views

Rubber restoration or replacement?

I recently found an old Satellite 4015cds laptop that I wanted to play around with. I have cleaned all the plastic and it looks really good except for two places. The rubber touchpads and the rubber ...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

How to access old laptop IDE hard drive

I have an old IDE hard drive from a Windows 98 HP computer. It has some data on it but I do not know how to access it.
9
votes
1answer
217 views

What are the advantages of NitrOS-9 over OS-9?

Microware released the versions of the OS-9 DOS for the CoCo. A few years later, former employees (I believe) released NitrOS-9. Both appear to be multiuser/multi-tasking OS's. What are the ...
15
votes
4answers
754 views

Are there any ZX Spectrum applications (mainly games or demoscene productions) that use a port other than $FE to access the ULA?

Although it is widely known that the ZX Spectrum ULA answers to any request to an even I/O address, all documentation state that the official port number to use should be $xxFE (where xx is any 8 bit ...
5
votes
1answer
232 views

Homemade ROM cartridge for Thomson TO7/70 home computer

I recently acquired a Thomson TO7/70 home computer. It came without any MEMO7 cartridges (ROM cartridges) that are necessary to properly use it. I found images of the ROMS, and a schematic, so in ...
4
votes
2answers
167 views

Breaking the CoCo 3 32K Cartridge Barrier

What is the max size for a cartridge based app on the Coco 3? I believe the Coco 1 & 2 cartridge maxes at 16K, while the Coco 3 is 32K. However, I know there have been cart based games for the ...
16
votes
3answers
680 views

What are the differences between the versions of AppleSoft BASIC?

Apple did make some changes to AppleSoft BASIC over the years between the first version on the Apple II and the last version on the Enhanced IIe and IIe card. What are the differences between the ...
15
votes
1answer
464 views

Unable to install Colonization in DosBox

I'm attempting to install Sid Meyer's Colonization in DosBox from the original floppies, and it gives me the error message "You have specified a drive that doesn't physically exist!" when I try to run ...
10
votes
3answers
1k views

What advantages are there to replacing Kickstart 3.0 with Kickstart 3.1?

I have an Amiga that has the Kickstart 3.0 ROMs installed. What advantages are there to replacing the Kickstart ROMs with 3.1? Is there any software that requires Kickstart 3.1 to function?
25
votes
4answers
655 views

How to get rid of yellowing in plastics?

I have some old electronics with white plastic that's starting to turn yellow. I know it's caused by flame retardants, UV rays, and so on. How can I restore my electronics to their former color?
6
votes
5answers
769 views

Does a market/shop with fully legal 8-bit software/games exist? [closed]

Currently about all of "8-bit micro" games that I know is either abandonware (which is a gray area) or free fan works. But is there some kind of shop, market, some place where you can purchase these ...
22
votes
1answer
865 views

Why are there two, different, Kickstart 1.3 ROMs with the same 34.5 version number?

The Kickstart 1.3 ROM file that is supplied with Cloanto's Amiga Forever (amiga-os-130.rom) is very slightly different to that which you'd get by dumping a real 1.3 ROM from an Amiga 500. ...
4
votes
1answer
115 views

How do I replace the battery on my Palm Zire 21?

My Zire 21 PDA's battery won't hold a charge for more than a few minutes. How do I replace it?
15
votes
1answer
550 views

Motorola 6809 Stack Blasting

I've seen several mentions of a "Stack Blasting" technique for copying memory quickly on the 6809. What is it? How does it work?
5
votes
1answer
74 views

How to measure time with frame resolution or better using BASIC in an Oric Atmos 48K

Following in the line of this question How can you measure time using BASIC on Atari XL computers? I'd like to ask how can you do the same (measuring time, with a resolution of frames or better if ...
8
votes
2answers
186 views

Pair Am386 with i387

I've got a motherboard with a Am386/DX processor. I've also got an Intel 387 coprocessor. Is it possible to use the Intel 387 that I've got together with the Am386 or do I need a coprocessor from AMD?...
9
votes
1answer
408 views

How are held-down keys handled in CHIP-8?

The CHIP-8 has, among its instructions, the following ones: Ex9E: Skips the next instruction if the key stored in VX is pressed. ExA1: Skips the next instruction if the key stored in VX isn'...
17
votes
2answers
613 views

How can I programmatically tell which version of Apple II my code is on?

There are minor and major differences between the many Apple II models. I would like to detect whether my 8-bit assembly language program is running on a II, II+, IIe (enhanced or not), or ///, and ...
8
votes
1answer
237 views

Cleaning membrane keyboards

I have a 3003b CoCo 1 (the white one) with the melty keyboard. A few of the keys do not work. On a few of them, there appears to be a slimy substance that I've cleaned from the surface. The badge on ...
16
votes
1answer
1k views

How did the Epyx Fast Load cart work with a Commdore 64?

Why would adding a cart in your system suddenly speed up the C64 or the 1541 for loading games?
16
votes
2answers
1k views

Can I run a NES emulator off the original cartridges?

Every NES emulator I've found runs off ROM dumps. Would it be possible to run an emulator using the original cartridges directly? It's probably not the most practical way of doing things, but the "...
14
votes
1answer
478 views

How was 8-channel audio achieved on Amiga?

Oktalyzer was a Tracker style program for Amiga, that allowed composing and playing music with 8 channels instead of the "hardware-natural" 4. So far I learned it achieved that by splitting the 4 8-...
14
votes
1answer
1k views

How could Amiga computers play 14 bit sound?

The "Paula" chip used for sound output in all Amiga computers had 4 8bit sound channels (arguably comparable to 9bit stereo). There were programs/libraries which could play 14bit stereo on the Amiga ...

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