Many UK home computers with Z80s had bitmapped displays.
The Sinclair ZX Spectrum (1982) had a 1 bit per pixel bitmap that was transformed into a multi colour display by a separate array of attribute pairs for foreground and background colours.
The Amstrad CPC machines (1984) extended this to three different colour bitmap modes, with different tradeoffs ...
Another bunch of 8080-based home computers from USSR with bitmap graphics:
Vector-06C (actually had quite advanced bitmap modes!)
PK-01 L'vov (no english wiki page is available)
Irisha (no english page)
Corvette (had both character-based and bitmap-based videomodes)
Many of the various Texas Instruments graphing calculators were/are based on the Z80 processor, and those all have bitmap displays. The TI-73 through the TI-86 all had variants of the Z80 processors. Above that, they moved to the Motorola 68k and more recently to ARM9.
The Belgian DAI computer comes to mind. It had a very sophisticated and flexible graphic system that wasn't a pure bitmap but which memory was shared with the 8080 CPU. The address space was split in CPU only 8 bit memory and CPU/VDU shared 16 bit accessed memory (the VDU accessed in 16 bit width, the CPU 8 bit wise).
Resolution up to 528x240 pixels or up to ...
I have started to use computers back in 1986 with a Czechoslovak computer PMD 85 (based on the MHB8080 CPU, a local I8080 clone), which has bitmapped B/W graphics in a 288x256 matrix. A lot of games from the ZX Spectrum has been ported to this computer.
Another Czechoslovak computer, named IQ-151, has a GRAFIK plug-in module, which provides B/W bitmap ...
Does anyone know of any bitmap-based 8080/8085 (or, failing that,
The Kyotronics 85, TRS-80 Model 100, NEC PC8201 and Olivetti M-10 were 8085 based notebook-style computers all based on the KR-85 platform, which had a 640 x 64 pixel graphic LCD screen. It was introduced in 1983.
Here's an example of bitmap graphics on the PC-8201, a 3D maze ...
To start with, there was a whole lot of 8080 based home computers, many of them offering bitmap graphics, but more important, already the very first general available colour video board, the Dazzler offered bitmap graphics. The Dazzler was most definite meant for use with an 8080, as it was available at a time before the Z80 could be bought.
For the ...
The Tatung Einstein shipped with a Machine Operating System (MOS) in ROM, which offered a moderately useful if limited set of commands including a loader to boot from a language disk. Two such disks were included in the pack I had - a version of Microsoft BASIC, and a near-perfect port of BBC BASIC.
Annoyingly, the MS language had been extended to access the ...
The Nintendo Family Computer (Famicom, also known as the Nintendo Entertainment System in the West) did not come with BASIC in ROM. In fact it didn't come with a keyboard, you had you buy a bundle that included the keyboard and BASIC cartridge.
The Nascom 1 didn't have any high level languages. Its successor the Nascom 2 came with BASIC however.
The Nascom 1 and 2 were single-board computer kits issued in the
United Kingdom in 1977 and 1979, respectively, based on the Zilog Z80
and including a keyboard and video interface, a serial port that could
be used to store data on a tape cassette using the ...
The Amstrad PCW was clearly sold as a home word processor, its printer was not good enough for most office use. It did not have BASIC in ROM, I can't recall if even had basic on an included disk.
It used a Z80 cpu so was 8 but, but had bank switch ram.
The Amstrad PCW range begun in 1985 were all 8-bit (except for the final model) and didn't have BASIC in ROM.
Although intended primarily as "home office" machines, they were still essentially home computers.
( https://www.old-computers.com/museum/computer.asp?c=190 : "ROM: No ROM chip.")
I had a Colecovision Adam computer back in the day. A very odd feature of that system was that the power supply was actually in the printer. It came with a word processor in its ROM rather than a programming language.
I remember using all my lawn mowing money to buy SmartBASIC and SmartLOGO on cassette tape along with a 300-baud modem for it.
I'm not sure that the IBM5100 could really be considered a "home computer", and I believe that it was not an 8-bit computer (it was, as I recall, based on a cut-down version of the 360), but it might pass today's "sniff test" for home computers, and came in two versions: The 5100B did in fact have BASIC in ROM (which IBM called ROS), but ...
Some more Soviet home computers that lacked BASIC in their ROMs:
Apogey BK-01 (wiki is only available in Russian and it is not very clear about whether there were built-in BASIC, but other sources say there weren't)
Microsha (only Russian, clear statement that the BASIC was loadable from the tape)
The ELAN Enterprise didn't have BASIC built-in. Its IS BASIC was supplied on a cartridge (that was, admittedly, part of the base pack). But you could just as well use any other language. It's "main application" was WP - A simple editor/word processor.
If you consider the Cambridge Z88 a home computer, its "main OS" was definitely not (BBC)...
One example of popular 8-bit computers without BASIC in ROM is the first three Atari 8-bit computers, the 400, 800, and 1200XL, which didn’t have BASIC built-in but on a separate cartridge.
Their predecessor, the Atari Video Computer System, also had a BASIC Programming cartridge, written by Warren Robinett, but it wasn’t supplied with the system (it was ...
Likely too many to list.
However, PMD-85 is notable and borderline because it included a BASIC on a detachable ROM module. By default, it started into a monitor (with tape loading routines etc.); there were other ROM modules produced (with Pascal, LOGO, IIRC also KAREL). But they were almost exclusively used with the BASIC module.
(Please see as well other fine answers for more computers fitting the list)
I guess we can put them in four categories (in descending order of application):
Machines with Different Language in ROM
The early models of the Soviet BK-0010 series had FOCAL in ROM. BASIC was available as an add-on module. Later models starting from BK-0010.01 already had BASIC in ...