The 1955 manual for the IBM 704 on page 7 talks about data representation in the computer.
When a word is interpreted as numerical data, the
zero position acts as the sign of the word. (…) When
a logical operation is performed on a word, the
word is interpreted as a 32-bit signless number.
As an algebraic (signed) binary number, a word can
(Another "what was the first" question where it's basically impossible to answer it unless one goes through all computer instruction sets ...)
One example of the usage of "logical" is the IBM 7090 (1959), as one can verify in the manual where the shift instructions are listed starting on page 31:
ALS Accumulator Left Shift