33

The simple answer is that early operating systems for the systems you mention did not provide those features. Apple DOS, for example, makes no use of interrupts, and has no concept of processes or memory protection. Nor does DOS have any concept of hardware drivers, as it includes support to drive the Disk II (a deep assumption in DOS) and nothing else. ...


28

For "home" computer systems such as the Apple II, the "operating system" wasn't anything like a modern one with processes and device drivers and so on; by the standards of modern OSes there wasn't really one at all. As a warning: all these explanations (long as they are) are for the most part considerably simplified. This answer is ...


26

I did that all the time on the Apple II. The reason it worked was that some time was needed for the motor to spin up to the correct speed, and that the Disk II didn't really have an "eject" mechanism, but that you could very directly mechanically lift the read-write head from the surface of the disk. That meant that if you were quick enough to lift the ...


17

We talk about the late 1970s and mainstream 6502 machines, right? It wasn't so much that programs run under OS control as that OS was a support function to Programs. More like what we would today see as a standard library with routines supporting simple I/O abstraction plus basic file handling on the user side and hard coded drivers within. Some, like ...


16

Theoretically, yes. The disk needs time to spin up to speed before reading or writing can occur. While it varies between platforms and drives, it's at least a couple hundred milliseconds. That's arguably just enough time to realize you shouldn't have hit enter, and to pop the drive latch. Especially if you subconsciously realize it before you even hit ...


15

There was no public release of DOS 1 or 2. DOS 3.1 was actually the first release to the public. It had a pretty significant bug in its MASTER CREATE program, and so the patched version DOS 3.2 was released. DOS 3.1 dates back to about June 1978. @fadden references the Wikipedia page for Apple DOS which notes the existence of 3.2.1 which I had neglected ...


14

No, conversion to 16-sector format (and the necessary change from DOS 3.2 to DOS 3.3) was a consequence of Steven Wozniak realizing that he could get more capacity by tweaking the Apple II floppy driver controller hardware slightly. To quote from here: After the Disk II had been in production for a while, Woz found out that the 8μs spec for the maximum ...


13

I am one of the two authors of Killer DOS. If you know the final lock screen when your disk was corrupted, we took credit as "The Master" and "The Wizard". I was the DOS Master. We were high school students at the time in a Chicago suburb and wrote the virus in a single weekend. Killer DOS was done as a challenge by a friend at another high school to one-...


12

TL;DR: No, not really. It was even more twisted. 16 sector was done for the Pascal System for the Apple II, independently and before the Apple III got it, but didn't get rolled out for DOS until after the Apple III was introduced (and failed). Wozniak developed the 16 sector format in 1979 for the Apple Pascal System, as otherwise the UCSD P-System would ...


12

The typical circa-1980 8-bit CPU provided almost no support for modern operating system features. It was often possible to add such support using external logic, but very few machines actually did so because it would have added costs to the hardware with little practical benefit. Even many minicomputers of the time left those features out, at least in the ...


11

Original all three have different meanings and are (in part) based on different implementations. But, as you already assume in your answer, people may have taken the name and used it with differend (usualy simpler) implementations Is there a backstory to the catalog command The term "Catalog(ue)" goes quite in line how IBM's terminology is based on ...


10

Contemporary operating systems for the 6502 did not have those features. But not because they couldn't. It just wasn't considered necessary or desirable. Provide automatic switching between processes. The standard trick here is to have a clock attached to an interrupt that the OS can use to perform a context switch. This seems doable on the 6502 with ...


10

What you're looking for is called Killer DOS, which behaved exactly like the Unnamed First Virus described on the Apple II History Viruses page. Killer DOS may have been the second version described on that page. I first saw it in the flesh in 1983 or 1984. There's a reference (although not much of one) to it having been written by a Bill Bach, who may be ...


9

A plausible but impossible-to-prove history could be that the HP 2000A Time-Shared BASIC System (1968–~1976) had the CATALOG command (see http://bitsavers.trailing-edge.com/pdf/hp/2000TSB/22687-90009_LearningTSB.pdf, page 39). Woz ‘grew up’ with HP systems, so it may have been natural that the Apple disk system was inspired by HP commands (as with DEC ...


9

ProDOS provides a common device driver API for storage systems, but does not specify a partition table format. Rather, the SCSI (or other) HD interface card has firmware to map partitions to ProDOS volumes. The Apple SCSI Card and Apple High-speed SCSI Card for the Apple ][+, //e, IIGS utilize the Apple Partition Map, just like with their Classic Macintosh ...


8

First off, the direct answer to your question is "Yes", you can run some DOS 3.3 binary games without loading ProDOS BASIC.SYSTEM. However, it isn't quite as simple as that. Second point is that it isn't as trivial as wrapping the DOS 3.3 binary file as a .SYSTEM. There is a big assumption here that by 'DOS 3.3 games' you mean single file games, e.g. ...


8

ProDOS supports up to 2 storage device volumes per slot, but does not support partitioning within those volumes. It is a function of the firmware provided with the storage device controller (i.e. SCSI Card) to map partitions on a storage device to volumes for ProDOS.


6

The question asks about microcomputer operating systems. I think the answer for such systems is that the authors simply reused whatever words they were familiar with from earlier systems. For earlier systems, I further guess that the authors of those systems just used whatever seemed like a good word at the time, and which they hadn't already used for some ...


6

Does it bypass the 16-sector PROMs? Like MUFFIN it got it's own RWTS. How exactly does it work and why does it work on the 16-sector PROM upgraded interface? Because DOS 3.2 also got it's own RWTS code? The PROM code is only used during the first two stages of boot, not during normal operation. In detail DOS boot looks like this: After Autostart/CTRL-...


6

Whilst this is not a definitive answer, by looking at Apple IIc ROM Version1, which more fully lists the features of each ROM version, it seems that the disk support was actually improved, whilst, unfortunately, removing the ability to easily boot from the second drive (although the second drive could still be accessed post-boot). One can only surmise that ...


5

The correct answer is, of course, "It depends". ; - ) If the game loads lower than $800 or is multiple files or otherwise tries to use DOS, work is needed. Otherwise use Bitsy Bye and MiniBas in ProDOS 2.4.1. (See the 2.4 release page for docs.) New ‘Bitsy Bye’ program launcher is built into ProDOS 2.4 and allows users to run SYS, S16, BIN, BAS, and ...


5

DOS-ordered images were created by DOS programs that started reading from track 0 sector 0, continued to sector 15, moved to track 1 sector 0, and so on until the end of the disk. They are in DOS logical order: the first 256 bytes are T0S0, the next are T0S1, and so on. ProDOS-ordered images are created by ProDOS programs that started reading from block 0, ...


4

The first filesystems were not stored on disk, but on tape. Usually tapes could only reliably be appended to or overwritten entirely, and could only be accessed in a more-or-less sequential order. Reading the entire tape just to find out what was stored on it was a very slow operation. It's likely that the terms catalogue and list originated from a ...


4

I did some looking around on the internet archive, browsing through a few collections, and I ran across this variant: Rhode Island Apple Group Volume 14 - Integer Basic Games The disk contains a what could be a variation, or an ancestor (or even a descendant) of the code listed above. There are enough similarities to look suspicious, but most of these ...


4

The program appears as "HELLO AUTO SELECT" in various public domain software collections that seem to derive from 1981 or earlier. This name appears in The Public Domain Exchange disk 166: "Hello and Menu" in The Best Apple Public Domain Software book from 1985, which states: The software in this book was compiled from user groups and individuals. It ...


4

You should download and use CiderPress which is a Swiss Army Knife tool for Apple disk images - It understands and supports the UCSD Pascal file system format and should be able to transfer a file from one disk image to the other.


3

You can't create partitions with arbitrary contents, but programs like Glen Bredon's DOS MASTER allow you to have multiple DOS 3.3 volumes on a ProDOS volume, including 3.5" disks and hard drives. I believe something similar was possible for Apple Pascal volumes.


3

I have done this with an 8051, (8 bit running about same speed as 6502) with a 4 task scheduler, driven by interrupts, task switching at about 10Hz. Reading position from NMEA on a GPS, sending and receiving GSM SMS messages, logging data to flash. No memory protection at all. Running in something like 1k RAM and 32k of ROM. Used a combination of ...


3

The specific details of what a 6502 Apple II was doing when it was sitting at the BASIC command prompt or Monitor command prompt is this: Periodically check for a keyboard key press to be detected at address $C000 If no input, it runs a delay routine to display a blinking white box or a square checkerboard (later enhanced IIe ROM) as a cursor at the current ...


2

it doesn't seem clear to me how the operating system protects itself on the 6502 or PDP-11. With respect to the PDP-11: it's pretty conventional. In general, there are at least 2 execution modes (kernel, user; some models add a third, supervisor); certain instructions are legal in kernel mode only; there is a memory management unit that controls virtual ...


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