92

The term "Disk Operating System", or commonly "DOS", was used in the early days of personal computing to distinguish operating systems that also contained software for supporting disk devices, since not all of them did. The DOS software could access blocks stored on disk, that were organized into files, and there was "filesystem" software included for ...


63

It doesn't imply that it's the disk operating system so much as it implies that it's the disk-operating system. You could boot an Apple II from ROM, enter and run BASIC programs, load programs from cassette, and basically do whatever an Apple II can do, but there was no way to access files on disk. Apple DOS didn't really do any of the features of a modern "...


39

The term DOS pre-dates the personal computer by a looong way: the term DOS/360 was first coined by IBM in 1964 as a new operating system for their System/360 mainframe computers, to replace TOS (tape operating system). IBM commissioned Microsoft (at that time a garage outfit) to write PC-DOS to run on their Personal Computer, which was launched in 1981. ...


33

The simple answer is that early operating systems for the systems you mention did not provide those features. Apple DOS, for example, makes no use of interrupts, and has no concept of processes or memory protection. Nor does DOS have any concept of hardware drivers, as it includes support to drive the Disk II (a deep assumption in DOS) and nothing else. ...


27

For "home" computer systems such as the Apple II, the "operating system" wasn't anything like a modern one with processes and device drivers and so on; by the standards of modern OSes there wasn't really one at all. As a warning: all these explanations (long as they are) are for the most part considerably simplified. This answer is intended to give you the ...


17

We talk about the late 1970s and mainstream 6502 machines, right? It wasn't so much that programs run under OS control as that OS was a support function to Programs. More like what we would today see as a standard library with routines supporting simple I/O abstraction plus basic file handling on the user side and hard coded drivers within. Some, like ...


17

In the personal/home computer space, the usual model was that the machine shipped with built in BASIC and the ability to save and load data from an attached cassette tape. This includes the original IBM PC, which had BASIC in ROM, as well as a specific cassette port that included a relay for controlling the cassette motor. BASIC itself included a MOTOR ...


17

Does "Disk Operating System" imply that there was a "non-disk" Operating System? Yes. A little bit of history The earliest computers did not even have Operating Systems. The earliest computers were mainframes that lacked any form of operating system. Each user had sole use of the machine for a scheduled period of time and would arrive at the computer ...


15

There was no public release of DOS 1 or 2. DOS 3.1 was actually the first release to the public. It had a pretty significant bug in its MASTER CREATE program, and so the patched version DOS 3.2 was released. DOS 3.1 dates back to about June 1978. @fadden references the Wikipedia page for Apple DOS which notes the existence of 3.2.1 which I had neglected ...


14

No, conversion to 16-sector format (and the necessary change from DOS 3.2 to DOS 3.3) was a consequence of Steven Wozniak realizing that he could get more capacity by tweaking the Apple II floppy driver controller hardware slightly. To quote from here: After the Disk II had been in production for a while, Woz found out that the 8μs spec for the maximum ...


13

I am one of the two authors of Killer DOS. If you know the final lock screen when your disk was corrupted, we took credit as "The Master" and "The Wizard". I was the DOS Master. We were high school students at the time in a Chicago suburb and wrote the virus in a single weekend. Killer DOS was done as a challenge by a friend at another high school to one-...


12

TL;DR: No, not really. It was even more twisted. 16 sector was done for the Pascal System for the Apple II, independently and before the Apple III got it, but didn't get rolled out for DOS until after the Apple III was introduced (and failed). Wozniak developed the 16 sector format in 1979 for the Apple Pascal System, as otherwise the UCSD P-System would ...


12

The typical circa-1980 8-bit CPU provided almost no support for modern operating system features. It was often possible to add such support using external logic, but very few machines actually did so because it would have added costs to the hardware with little practical benefit. Even many minicomputers of the time left those features out, at least in the ...


10

Contemporary operating systems for the 6502 did not have those features. But not because they couldn't. It just wasn't considered necessary or desirable. Provide automatic switching between processes. The standard trick here is to have a clock attached to an interrupt that the OS can use to perform a context switch. This seems doable on the 6502 with ...


10

What you're looking for is called Killer DOS, which behaved exactly like the Unnamed First Virus described on the Apple II History Viruses page. Killer DOS may have been the second version described on that page. I first saw it in the flesh in 1983 or 1984. There's a reference (although not much of one) to it having been written by a Bill Bach, who may be ...


8

I think it is fair to say that Disk Operating System implies an OS that talks to disk in the commonly perceived environment of files, file sizes, directory(ies), time stamps, open(), close(), read(), write(), etc. Operating System is neutral on the subject of whether or not there is a disk. Many might group them with devices that have no large, native ...


8

Small single-user computers were typically a single task. They also had limited memory, so the most that their operating systems could do was manage I/O. As most of their function was dedicated to disk filing and maybe a little terminal/printer I/O, they were primarily disk operating systems. Large computer systems, on the other hand, had functions to ...


8

First off, the direct answer to your question is "Yes", you can run some DOS 3.3 binary games without loading ProDOS BASIC.SYSTEM. However, it isn't quite as simple as that. Second point is that it isn't as trivial as wrapping the DOS 3.3 binary file as a .SYSTEM. There is a big assumption here that by 'DOS 3.3 games' you mean single file games, e.g. ...


8

ProDOS provides a common device driver API for storage systems, but does not specify a partition table format. Rather, the SCSI (or other) HD interface card has firmware to map partitions to ProDOS volumes. The Apple SCSI Card and Apple High-speed SCSI Card for the Apple ][+, //e, IIGS utilize the Apple Partition Map, just like with their Classic Macintosh ...


7

ProDOS supports up to 2 storage device volumes per slot, but does not support partitioning within those volumes. It is a function of the firmware provided with the storage device controller (i.e. SCSI Card) to map partitions on a storage device to volumes for ProDOS.


5

The correct answer is, of course, "It depends". ; - ) If the game loads lower than $800 or is multiple files or otherwise tries to use DOS, work is needed. Otherwise use Bitsy Bye and MiniBas in ProDOS 2.4.1. (See the 2.4 release page for docs.) New ‘Bitsy Bye’ program launcher is built into ProDOS 2.4 and allows users to run SYS, S16, BIN, BAS, and ...


5

"In the 1980's at primary school we saw MS DOS and DR DOS" -- in the '80's? Hah! Youngling! Before DOS there was TOS -- the Tape Operating System. You would mount a substantial looking tape on a tape drive the size of a refrigerator, select it as the boot device using dial switches, and press the blue LOAD button. Viola! the tape would run, and the ...


5

Whilst this is not a definitive answer, by looking at Apple IIc ROM Version1, which more fully lists the features of each ROM version, it seems that the disk support was actually improved, whilst, unfortunately, removing the ability to easily boot from the second drive (although the second drive could still be accessed post-boot). One can only surmise that ...


4

Does it bypass the 16-sector PROMs? Like MUFFIN it got it's own RWTS. How exactly does it work and why does it work on the 16-sector PROM upgraded interface? Because DOS 3.2 also got it's own RWTS code? The PROM code is only used during the first two stages of boot, not during normal operation. In detail DOS boot looks like this: After Autostart/CTRL-...


4

You should download and use CiderPress which is a Swiss Army Knife tool for Apple disk images - It understands and supports the UCSD Pascal file system format and should be able to transfer a file from one disk image to the other.


3

Just to clarify in a single sentence: some of these systems did not have disks. Early home computers (e.g. ZX Spectrum, BBC Micro) ran entirely from ROM and could (slowly) load programs from audio cassette tape. BBC Micros could support disks, which involved adding a ROM. If you did this it got listed on the boot screen as "Acorn DFS" (Disk Filing System) ...


3

I have done this with an 8051, (8 bit running about same speed as 6502) with a 4 task scheduler, driven by interrupts, task switching at about 10Hz. Reading position from NMEA on a GPS, sending and receiving GSM SMS messages, logging data to flash. No memory protection at all. Running in something like 1k RAM and 32k of ROM. Used a combination of ...


2

There were also two other formats common on the Apple ][: Pascal and CP/M. Though the latter required a special Z80 CP/M card (such as the Microsoft Softcard), the former was proprietary to the UCSD Pascal system that was released in the late 1970s. I believe the idea was that since UCSD Pascal was a cross-platform p-Code environment, the format would be ...


2

Just to add to what already have been said here. You need to remember that until late '60s there were no disks of any kind used in computer storage or otherwise. All computing systems where using punch-cards or tapes for any data storage and input/output. They were nothing more than huge electronic devices with what you would call active memory setup, all ...


2

It appears that IBM was first, but there were others. Back in the day (mid 1970s) the PDP-11 had a single-user DOS whose only purpose was to execute a sysgen program and an assembler and linker, all of which generated a tailored operating system, which could be one of RT-11, RSX-11, or RSTS/E, depending on your requirements. [I'm not speaking of the Unix ...


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