Update April 2019
It looks as though the Three River PERQ was the first commercial machine, as per @MrTelly's answer.
I hate to quote Wikipedia as a source of truth, but I had a feeling that a Xerox product would take the claim, and it looks as though I was right.
The Star workstation, officially known as the Xerox 8010 Information ...
In late 1984 the Lisa was repackaged as the Macintosh XL to try and clear out poor selling inventory.
Not only that, but more important as development systems for the Mac. The original Mac had only 128 KiB of RAM and could not access a hard disk. So software development on the machine was rather cumbersome. The origin of MacWorks XL was an internal hack to ...
No the LISA wasn't the first. I used a Three River PERQ in 1988 for an early AI project/disseration. I acquired it for zero cost as it was obsolete, and I reckon some of it was at least 5 years old as I had to build one working machine from three donors. WikiPedia says it launched in the late 1970s. From memory the original price was GBP27,000 and the single ...
As the manual explains:
Pipes (See Section 2 .. 9) The pipe facility has been removed.
MAKE_PIPE has:been deleted, and any attempt to OPEN an old pipe object
will return an error number 948. All the inter-process communication
(IPC) features provided by pipes are also provided by event channels.
This is a bit interesting for the simple reason that ...
No, not really, the Mac's refresh rate is 60.14 Hz.
I'm missing the exact data on the Lisa, but it's as well close to (or at) 60 Hz (*1).
The Mac timing is a bit odd and built around the Video timing.
Base clock is 7.83 MHz (*2)
Line frequency is 22.255 kHz.
Thus a video line is exactly 352 clock cycles
A 68k needs 4 cycles per read/write
The Star was indeed the first commercially available. However, it wasn't something average people could even aspire to buying. The Lisa, while insanely overpriced, was technically available for everyday people to buy, and was certainly available for business users. The Star was very much a corporate beast at best.
An early (1964) commercial graphical interface was IBM's 2250 Display Unit, based on its experience with SAGE. This CRT had a 1K x 1K display that could be used for drawings, tables, or text. Interaction was through a keyboard or light pen. Users could perform image operations such as draw, erase, move, rescale, and restructure. (Source: IBM's 360 and Early ...
I wrote an emulator earlier the year, so I can answer on the Macintosh.
The processor's clock rate is 7,833,600 Hz; the video subsystem is completely synchronous and completes each line in 352 processor cycles, outputting a total of 370 lines per frame.
Therefore each frame is 130,240 cycles long.
So the original Macintosh produces a touch less than 60.15 ...
Clearly, it depends a lot on how you define "graphical interface". I recall seeing a lunar landing game being played on the console of a Cyber-170 sometime in the 70s. They were vector graphics terminals and had no graphical input. There are similar consoles on the CDC 6600 which was first delivered in 1965. The lunar lander game also worked on the CDC-6000 ...
It depends on exactly what you mean. The Physics department I did my MSc at was using a graphics terminal years before the Lisa came out. The terminal was a Tektronix (might have been a 4010) attached to a PDP-11. (OK, it might have been a KJV8I; I remember it as a Tex because that's what it looked like.) There were LOTS of these things around. The ...
Another graphical computer launched before the Lisa was the Lilith, originally developed for internal use at ETH Zürich after Niklaus Wirth (of Pascal fame) had done a sabbatical at Xerox PARC. It served as the development platform for Pascal's successor language Modula-2, and at first built only for use at the computer science faculty of ETH ("the Swiss MIT"...
I'm going to contend that that PERQ 1 beat the Xerox Star to market. The PERQ 1 was very much inspired by the Xerox Alto and its successors. There is a detailed history of the PERQ 1 and its relationship with ICL and the British Science and Engineering Research Council here. .
Based on that source, the PERQ was announced in 1979, launched in April 1980, ...
The Macintosh and the Lisa were directly inspired by the Xerox Alto,
which was announced in early 1973. There were about 500 of them in
use outside Xerox, so I guess you could call that commercial. The
Alto is definitely where the WIMP GUI style first became generally
known. There was an earlier system called NewsHall, not at Xerox,
and someone who had ...