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101

The message hasn’t gone anywhere. What actually changed is something else. The text message first appeared in MS-DOS 6.0 and said ‘Starting MS-DOS...’. It served two purposes: first, it confirmed that MSLOAD has successfully completed reading the DOS kernel from IO.SYS and initialisation is now underway. Second, it signalled the user that they can now press ...


93

Bootable game disks do exist for the IBM PC. Conflict in Vietnam is an example of such a game. As can be seen on page 8 of the manual, the game boots directly without loading DOS first. The main reason it wasn't common was for compatibility. A self booting game has to have its own drivers for all the hardware it wants to support. As PCs quickly diversified ...


93

This is historically not uncommon at all. Before starting an Operating System and initializing a graphics mode, your PC operates in the simplest display mode available, 80×25 text mode. The original VGA 80 × 25 text mode (that is still supported by most modern graphics cards) has characters with a resolution of 9×16 pixels per character. This adds up to 80×9 ...


62

Because it used to be necessary. While a battery-powered real-time clock is standard today, this wasn’t always the case. The very first IBM 5150 did not include an RTC chip; the system clock was maintained by the PIT interrupt running on the CPU, which in particular meant that disabling interrupts halted the system clock. When the computer was turned off, ...


58

Since you are using MS-DOS 6.22 you can abuse the CHOICE command to introduce a set timed delay by piping the output of a REM statement to the choice command, leaving it with no way to complete other than via the /T timeout option. Example from Rob van der Woulde's Scripting Pages: REM | CHOICE /C:AB /T:A,10 >NUL The CHOICE command never actually gets ...


46

The notion of a bootable-vs-non-bootable floppy is a little odd. It's worth noting that almost all floppies you're likely to have are actually bootable: it's just that they boot a program that isn't especially useful (it either displays a message saying to insert a system disk, or they execute INT 18h - which runs BASIC if it's installed in ROM, or displays ...


34

TL;DR: There is no fundamental difference just because a different interrupt is used. For all practical purpose the Restore-key works like the Apple II's Reset-key or the PC's Ctrl-Alt-Del key combination. In Detail Most early microcomputers provided either a dedicated key (e.g. Apple ][), keyboard combination (e.g. PC clones), or dedicated hardware button ...


30

What Boot Code? With 16 KiB it was pitched against the Apple II or the Commodore/Tandy/Atari with BASIC, nothing else. Remember that the PC (!) had a the cassette port? That's the intended mass storage for a 16 KiB system :)) The minimum requirement for floppy use was, as you already guessed, 32 KiB. And oh wonder, DOS can be booted on a 32 KiB machine. ...


30

What is algorithms use for boot/start sound (when turn on computer) Algorithm? Well, yes, technically everything is an algorithm. In this case it's simply executing the beep subroutine during reset, which in turn toggles the speaker line 192 times over 0.1s resulting in a sound of roughly 1 kHz, which should be is close to b′′. Lets have a look into the ...


26

Early Linux distributions, including MCC and TAMU, used Miquel van Smoorenburg’s sysvinit package (which was originally written for Minix in February 1992 and ported to Linux in July 1992; it is now maintained on Savannah). This came with built-in examples for two styles of init setup, both based on /etc/inittab and runlevels: “simple” RC, with a few ...


26

Well there were some PC booter titles (MobyGames lists 249), but most of these were quite early games, even before hard drives, XMS or EMS even existed. These were almost always self contained single floppy games, that could run on the very specific hardware that existed. All they used was BIOS for disk access. Also DOS was not the only operating system, so ...


24

Why are they doing that? The most important reason is that IBM introduced that check as part of the BIOS startup code, so everyone copied it to be compatible. The PC did differ from many other machines of the same era in that it did a thorough test of all components installed at power up to make sure the configuration was operable. Something carried over ...


23

I might have found a stable way to limit Windows 98 to use only 1 GiB of RAM with HimemX: Install Windows 98 with 1 GiB of RAM or less; Download himemxfrom https://sourceforge.net/projects/himemx/; Extract himemx.zip and copy himemx.exe to C:\Windows\ under Windows 98; Open the Run dialog box (Windows + R), type sysedit and press Enter; Open the file C:\...


21

The Windows 98 memory manager only supports a maximum of 1GB. This amount of memory was considered beyond huge for the time, and by the time people commonly had that much or more memory, Microsoft expected people to be using either newer versions of Windows 9x, or Windows NT. From Raymond Chen's blog The Old New Thing: Windows 98 bumped the limit to 1GB ...


21

The IBM PC was NOT a Game Machine Plenty of people played plenty of games on IBM & compatible computers. But the IBM PC was designed as a business machine, not a game machine. This is most obvious with audio capabilities. Where Atari 400/800, VIC-20, Commodore 64, Amiga and many other machines of the era included some (for the time) serious sound ...


21

On the C64, no. On power up, the drive is resetting and the motor may spin briefly, but the drive is not actually reading the disk. And even if it were, it is an IEC slave device and cannot initiate communication with the C64/C128 bus master itself. For an auto boot concept to be implemented, it would have to be the computer's kernal directing the flow of ...


19

De Re Atari describes the cassette boot protocol, which helps understand why bootloaders were (nearly) always used. In cassette boot mode, the operating system reads a record from the tape recorder and loads the following information: byte 2 gives the number of records to load (up to 256 records, each containing 128 bytes, so 32 KB in theory) bytes 3 and 4 ...


17

Its hard to tell exactly from just that brief description, but I think you're probably referring to the sound of the hard drive head seek (repositioning to different areas of the disk) as data is read from the drive. That's the repetitive ticking you can hear in this video when the Windows 95 splash screen is showing and the OS is being loaded from the hard ...


14

If you do any programming, it would probably be trivial to create a small C executable that calls Sleep() to pause the thread for a specified timeout. However, it stands to reason you are not the first person to need such a tool. Some very quick googling turned up this page: https://www.computerhope.com/dutil.htm which, if you scroll down, offers a Sleep....


13

In order to autoboot any Amiga hard disk, 3 things are needed. A version of Kickstart that supports boot from HD. This means >= Kickstart 1.3. A device driver that knows how to speak to the HD controller, such as scsi.device. A filesystem handler that understands the format of the HD. I think #1 is simple to understand. This is a function of the Strap (as ...


13

Well, a few users are creating compilation of games for the CD32 and the CDTV. The most prolific is AmigaJay. For instance here he released several compilations for CDTV including a lot of titles: Volume 1 Volume 2 Volume 3 Volume 4 Volume 5 Volume 6 Basically, the compilations boot with a menu (AGS or other) then run scripts to assign volumes and boot ...


12

The minimal version of IBM PC, also known as cassette version, was shipped with 40KB ROM and 16KB RAM as outlined in IBM 5150 Technical Reference (SECTION I. HARDWARE OVERVIEW in the reference): The System Board is a large board which fits horizontally in the base of the System Unit and includes the microprocessor, 40KB ROM and 16KB memory. The memory ...


12

What does "POST" mean? On the RiscPC, "POST" stands for Power On Self Test. The POST sequence is performed on computers running RiscOS 3, and ensures that the computer is working properly before it starts up. If the computer fails this test, an error message will be displayed on the screen, informing you that there was a POST error. How ...


12

Games that were designed to be run from floppy were usually self-booting, and often could only be run by booting from floppy. In many cases, the game code could be stored in ways that would not be understood by MS-DOS (using things like non-standard sector sizes), and booting into a game would be faster than booting MS-DOS and then booting the game. The ...


12

The PC boots in text mode, and on a VGA card the text mode indeed has a resolution of 720x400. As the text mode was the most used standard mode before GUI programs and operating systems were loaded, so it made sense to name the mode as 720x400. However, the monitor actually cannot know what the exact resolution is, because for example 320x200 graphics mode ...


11

You need a Kickstart ROM adapter to eliminate the need for the Kickstart disk. There are a number of such adapters out there such as this one that's currently in production. And to boot to a hard drive, you will need a Kickstart 1.3 (or greater) ROM (I think the linked one will work). Then you can boot to a SCSI hard drive. I should also mention the ...


11

There were three primary reasons: Space - PC games were at an awkward juncture in time where both the OS and the games had grown but floppy disks had not, so there was often too little space on the disk to include the OS, even for single-disk games, let alone multi-disk games. License - They couldn’t just throw a copy of DOS on the disk; that would be ...


11

Your question is backwards, the Amiga and Atari ST were really the only computers that had mainly bootable games on floppy, pretty much every other disk-based PC required you to boot into the OS first, then boot your game. There are a very small number of exceptions on the PC, but they are rare. The simple answer is that the Amiga and ST had part of their ...


11

It was necessary, because the early hardware did not contain a Real Time Clock (RTC) chip. The first IBM PC model to have an RTC chip as a standard feature and supported by BIOS was the IBM PC/AT, and earlier models could be retrofitted with an add-on RTC ISA card. So the models before AT cannot possibly know the current time automatically after powering the ...


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