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14

The Z80 is notoriously limited when it comes to mathematical calculators. Not more than CPUs used in calculators before. Like any other device a pocket calculator is about sufficient speed, not maximum speed. A Z80 is more than capable to do several hundred up to a few thousand flotingpoint operations per second - way more than the average calculator user ...


12

In the early seventies, companies like HP and Wang sold 'programmable desktop calculators' that were really personal computers Not really, as they stood firmly on the calculator side. If at all, systems like the Cogar 4 and Datapoint 2200 are the origin of desktop computing. Complete units with a CPU, mass storage, CRT display and a full figured typewriter ...


10

The de facto – and indeed de jure – standard interface for computers controlling random equipment was RS-232. Some would argue with that, at least in certain industries — Hewlett-Packard’s HPIB (GPIB, IEE-488) was (and is) also commonly used to connect control and/or measurement equipment. It is simpler to implement than RS-232. So some early programmable ...


8

RS-232 became "standard peripheral interface" later, when most of these "peripheral devices" adopted microprocessors. In early days, parallel ports were more common because they: can read-write data from logic elements like latches and d-triggers can control state of output triggers and even relays Actually they were a window to real life for CPU's ...


8

Some important clarifications to the question. First, TI-80 was based on proprietary CPU and TI-89 was 68000-based, so formally the question is wrong. Second, both Z80-based and 68k-based TI calculators used decimal floating point format. Therefore, even the extensive binary multiplication and division capabilities of 68k wouldn't help much in BCD and ...


7

Wabbitemu is a modern emulator supporting many TI platforms, it supports TI-73, TI-81, TI-82, TI-83, TI-83+(SE), TI-84+(SE), TI-84+CSE, TI-85, and TI-86


7

Hewlett-Packard marketed some of their computers as calculators for some marketing related reason like you stated. Similarly, DEC called their computers "Programmable Data Processors", to avoid the "Big Expensive Machine" connotation that the word "computer" had at that time. Not in every country was it the same as in the West. In the Hungarian People's ...


6

Hewlett Packard in the 1980s-1990s had two divisions. The Calculator Division and the Computer Division. These two divisions each made their own products without reference to each other. The overlap started when the Calculator Division started to break out from just producing hand-held calculators and started producing products that were effectively Intel-...


6

Aside from the ipart function that you mention, there is also int which, according to the manual, returns the largest integer smaller equal to the input, i.e. it truly rounds down. You can use this to round up with the expression -int(-x).


6

No, there is no speaker or buzzer integrated into the ti-86. It does however have a jack port (2,5mm if I remember correctly) which can be used to transfer data between calculators. It is possible to control this output with a program written in assembly or Axeparser (i'm not sure about ti-basic). You can then connect a speaker to this port and play sounds ...


5

Back in the TI-58/59 days, there was some games that made sounds using the natural ambient RF leakage of the device. You put it next to an AM radio, and then it would do internal loops of varying types to make noises in the radio.


4

Here is a TI 99/4a emulator written in JavaScript that runs in a web browser. When it starts up, press any key to begin, then press 1 for TI BASIC. This brings you to the BASIC interpreter. MAME as of v0.162 contains a TI 99/4a emulator. Binaries are available for Windows, Mac, and Linux.


2

I don't know how 'early' this is, but in 1990, the HP48 series had built in RS232. In addition to the IR used by the immediately preceding HP28, there was also a four pin serial connector on the device. With the right kind of cable, this would provide up to 9600bps to another RS232 device. At the time, HP also sold a companion PC connection kit that that ...


1

Add one and then round down. But make sure the number is not already an integer, because adding 1 and then rounding down would end up adding 1.


1

No, TI-86 does not have a purpose-built sound output. However, it has a "link port" (2.5mm Mono Jack connector). People seem to usually connect this jack to a piezo-buzzer or to a mono headphones, see e.g. here. At the same time, it is actually possible to control the stereo channels separately, so you can, if you want to, connect it to stereo headphones and ...


1

(This is a work-in-progress answer I hope to expand on as I continue to evaluate options.) I've found two so far that I am currently evaluating: pitybas, which claims to be a faithful interpreter written in Python. tibasic, written in C++. Windows binaries are provided, with a Mac/Linux version supposedly in development. There has been no news on this ...


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