Like all games from that era, cheating and tables.
Two 256 byte tables and logarithms gave a 10x speed boost on multiply and divide on Commodore 64 at least.
Matrix operations using addition only for fixed known rotation rates.
Only convex shapes making hidden line removal simpler and hidden line removal meaning only half the vertices ...
The pixels are not exactly square, the actual aspect ratio depends on the TV system.
For PAL-B, the pixel aspect ratio is 0.937:1, the pixels are a bit higher than they are wide.
For NTSC, the ratio is 0.75:1. At this ratio it can be clearly seen that the cursor block is definitely higher than wide.
The Nintendo 64 not only has full-perspective texturing, it can afford bilinear filtering — for each output pixel the PS1 samples the input texture exactly once. The N64 samples it four times and linearly interpolates according to how close it is to each (in two dimensions, hence bilinear).
The Saturn has a couple of tricks up its sleeve:
the primitive is ...
In standard bitmap mode the C64 outputs 320 pixels in 40µs.
The visible portion of a line is ~52µs; in 60Hz regions ~240 lines are considered 'visible', but in PAL regions it's ~288 lines.
So if there were no borders, there'd be around 52/40*320 = 416 pixels across the visible portion of a line.
Given that each line is 4/3rds as wide as a hypothetical ...
Many PC pinball games use Mode X, notably Pinball Fantasies, Pinball Illusions and Epic Pinball.
Nerdly Pleasures also has a comprehensive post on games using “unofficial” resolutions, which includes a number of other games which support 320×240: Quake, Earthworm Jim, The Lost Vikings, Norse by Norse West, and Scorched Earth.
On Moby Games, such games are ...
Probably because it was the only way to get 100% compatibility with the old software library, which was required while most PS2 titles weren't developped yet. Noone wants to buy a machine without games, and noone wants to upgrade and lose the ability to play old games.
Note like console makers have a "all or nothing" way of handling the compability. For ...
all boils down to (4x4) * (4x1) multiplication where some elements are known so it can be done with 4 * 4D dot products in full but sometimes its enough just 3 * 3D dots and single 3D addition ... For more info see
Understanding 4x4 homogenous transform matrices.
with fixed point and 4bit digit long multiplication + LUT is the multiplication not that slow ...
As for the first part of your question, yes, for sprites as well as characters or bitmap images the same principle holds: either you can be in single colour/hi-res mode (320x200, 1 bit of foreground colour info per logical pixel) or multi colour mode (160x200, 2 bits of colour info per logical pixel).
In practice, for PAL, a single colour pixel that is ...
There are two essential elements to programming such smooth scrolling on the C64:
Use C64 hardware scrolling, which can move the screen in single pixel increments, but only for 8 pixels.
Use double buffering to scroll the back buffer by 8 pixels during the time that hardware scrolling is doing the front buffer.
Since hardware scrolling and screen swapping ...
Two issues... the wobble was because the post-transform 2D vertex coordinates for each triangle were integers... So the vertex could only move on discreet pixel locations. This makes smooth vertex movement virtually impossible. PS2 for instance fixed this by having fixed point fractional screen vertex locations, helping smooth movement out. Other later ...