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131

Basically, because it is running under Windows 3 at that point. Windows 98’s setup process goes through three main phases, in three different operating environments; each one installs the operating environment for the next, until the installation is complete. The first, which can run from the setup floppies and/or CD-ROM, uses a DOS program (DOSSETUP.BIN) ...


62

In addition to Stephen Kitt's answer, you can go back even further from Windows 3.1 to the Apple II version of America Online, circa 1989. Certainly not as popular or long-lived as the MS-DOS and Windows versions, but it did exist for the 8-bit platform! While some things were done in graphics mode, most of the text and "productivity stuff" was ...


60

AOL provided (and still provide) their own client, which — at least back then — was called “America Online”. This was available on a variety of platforms, including DOS: (based on GeoWorks) and Windows 3:


55

According to Richard Dale, copy & paste was invented in '73 - '76 by Larry Tesler for Smalltalk-76: Copy and paste in a modeless editor was invented by Larry Tesler at XEROX Parc for the Smalltalk-76 programming environment, in 1973-76. In Smalltalk, when you selected some text you had a large number of commands you could apply to the selection; 'again',...


43

Note, Linux is only a kernel, like msdos.sys in DOS or krnl386.exe in Windows. No. It had no GUI, it was purely command line. In Linus' initial statement, roughly with the release of the Linux kernel 0.0.1, we said, he ported bash and gcc to it. He ported probably also the most important GNU tools (make and fileutils (today part of coreutils)). I'm ...


34

Honorable mention should be given to TECO, a text editor from the early 1960s. It had a set of containers called Q registers that functioned much the way the clipboard does. Cut and paste operations were easy enough in TECO, although the syntax was obscure.


23

In the early 1990s, with the rise in popularity of Windows 3, the PC world got a number of "Windows Accelerator" video cards. These were 2D fixed-function GPUs with command-sets that supported things like drawing lines, drawing solid-color rectangles, copying a rectangle from one location to another (useful for moving windows), and sometimes even ...


19

Prodigy used NAPLPS (North American Presentation Level Protocol Syntax) to encode its graphical displays. This is a vector-based graphics originally intended for videotex and teletext services (in North America). Client-side behaviour was implemented using proprietary programming languages. Prodigy clients were available on at least DOS, Windows 3, and ...


19

I imagine the TMS34010 could have handled all of that, to beyond the standards of an ‘80s GUI; it is a combination CPU and GPU for the mainstream consumer market first released in 1986. It and its descendants are known for powering pioneering arcade games such as Hard Drivin’ and Mortal Kombat, but it was also available as a putative video card standard for ...


15

Silicon Graphics started to provide dedicated graphics terminals and workstations in the 80s. So the technology was definitely there, even for 3D. In 1991, they put this technology on a PC expansion card with IrisVision. So if this was possible for a full 3D-pipeline in 1991, for the simpler hardware needed for GUI acceleration that should have been possible ...


14

On the Alto, the buttons’ functions vary with the program currently being used and the location of the cursor. The Users’ Handbook describes the functions in the default applications, using colours for the buttons: red for the left button (or top button), yellow for the middle button, blue for the right button (or bottom button). In Bravo, the text document ...


14

A simple form of this was embodied by the BBC Micro of all things, when paired with a Second Processor. The two were connected by a remarkably simple interface known as the "Tube". In this configuration, the BBC Micro itself became an "I/O processor" handling keyboard input, display output, and all tape/disk/network functions, while the ...


14

It was certainly around in vi (Unix text editor) that I first used in 1985. Vi is a visual front end to ed, which presumably pre-dates it. The cryptic ‘y’ would yank a line into the clipboard and ‘p’ would paste it. The paste buffer wasn’t shared with any other applications though, so I’m not sure whether that’s what you have in mind.


13

The Amiga GUI was using the hardware's custom chipset (the 'GPU', if you will) to assist in drawing lines or blitting rectangles. That was back in 1985. I'm not sure any functionality beyond that would have made much sense in the eighties: Due to the low resolutions and the lack of colors, GUI elements were extremely simply - mostly monochrome, only few ...


12

Did it exist on any non-graphical environments? I remember when I worked for Canon in the UK, someone (hi, Dave!) had the idea of a mouse with memory. If you cut something (text or a small file), it could be stored in the mouse. You could then that mouse to another computer, plug it in, and paste what was cut. Apparently, there were similar patents in the ...


10

R.J. Mical, the primary author of the Intuition GUI built into the Amiga OS firmware, is most likely responsible for the concept, but certainly responsible for the detailed design and coding. The functionality with screens that really set the Amiga apart from lesser systems of the time (MacOS Switcher, DOS TSR's) was that the screen was the main UI primitive ...


7

I remember there being a folder installed with VisualBasic 4 or 5 that was full of those icons... I remember there being all the stock new, open, save, print, cut, copy, paste, etc. and some more esoteric ones like flags and smileys and chain links... I don't have access to my old MSDN disk from back then (they are in storage) but if you can dig up a copy ...


6

I haven't double-checked, but here's my understanding of how it works. The first half of the installer is a DOS application, with all the limitations therein and then, once it's installed a base Windows system, it boots into Windows to complete the process. The DOS portion doesn't have access to Windows video drivers, so, judging by the color scheme and ...


6

I suspect this is going to degenerate into an argument about what words mean, but back in 1965 the IBM 2250 graphics terminal had the equivalent of a mouse (actually a light pen) and a keypad with 32 clickable buttons that could be programmed to do anything (and have their functionality redefined depending on the context of what was being displayed on the ...


5

I checked on Windows 98, and the behaviour I saw didn’t match your description (or my earlier answer). Basically, whether you hold down the mouse button or not, menus stay open as long as you don’t click elsewhere or hit a key. Sub-menus open either immediately when you click on their parent menu entry, or after a short delay if the mouse pointer hovers ...


5

Your images appear to have been generated via emulation, with heavy anti-aliasing that doesn't show what it looked like in reality. Here's Windows 3.1 Write in native VGA resolution without any image processing, captured from PC-Task running on an Amiga 1200:- Here's part of that screen magnified so you can see the individual pixels:- Finally, here's what ...


4

I think what you’re describing is a GPU, so yes it’s both possible and commonplace. I don’t recall it being done widely until the 90s though.


4

AOL was based on Quantum Link, which ran on Commodore 64s and which in turn was based on PlayNet software. By 90s, it was expanded to include The Remote Automated Information Manager or RAINMAN, which was basically an in-house developed state-machine/scripting language used to create every window you could see after you've logged in, from the Welcome screen ...


4

There's an address in the I/O page that when read, reads the switches. The same address may correspond to a write-only display register on some processors; i.e., reading gets the switches, writing sets the display register. I think that only the 11/45 and 11/70, and variants thereof, permit writes. Even then, whether the display register is actually shown ...


4

Yes. It wasn't that long ago that stand-alone X-Windows terminals existed. They would allow clients to display on them that ran on server hardware that was used in common by the team but were controlled by individual team members. We used those at IBM Federal Systems Division in the 90's where the server ran AIX. Years before that, Digital Equipment ...


4

The idea of some buffer isn't far fetched anyway. Additionally, did it exist on non-graphical environments as well ? Well, in the mid 70s we used a (line orientated) editor on /370 mainframe that allowed to operate with multiple edit areas - plus one area for temporary copies. Lines could be copied into that area replacing what was there or added at the ...


4

How about QED (1967)? It had the M command to move text to a "buffer", whose contents could then be retrieved via \B. Example 2 here is essentially cut/paste: The commands /abcd/,$m1 Oa \b1\f first move several lines from the end of the current buffer to buffer 1. Then the lines are inserted at the beginning of the current buffer.


4

The concept has been around a lot longer than the moniker. Cash registers/other mechanical/electronic calculators often had one or more memories you could store the current value or the result of a calculation into, and then recall it for use in other operations. Human calculators often used a scratch-pad for temporary memory. I'd be willing to bet that the ...


3

Sketchpad from 1963 would qualify. In general, the framebuffer's ability to display "anything" is just too danged useful to make a GUI without it. Using a system without a framebuffer to make a GUI without needing much memory would mean that you need a very fast graphics processor, and that you have to accept limitations to the complexity of the ...


3

One candidate is the form widget in the Project Athena Xaw library. I couldn't find an exact date for this library; Project Athena started in 1983. And it's really a for graphical UI, not a text-based one like dBase.


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