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71

The short version is that Windows became the de facto operating system thanks to Microsoft’s business acumen (or shenanigans, depending on your point of view), marketing, skilled developers, a strong focus on backwards-compatibility, and the success of MS-DOS. The success of Windows in general can be traced back to the success of Windows 3.0, which has ...


53

At least for FTP, the actual file transfer happened over a different connection to support a particular file transfer mode that isn't used much today. Suppose you have three machines, A, B, C, and you want to transfer a file from machine A to machine B. You are logged in to an FTP client on machine C. With FTP you can do the following: +----------+ ...


32

At that time, developers at Microsoft were still dreaming the dream of version independent management of libraries, so newer, more powerful libraries could replace older, less powerful or buggy libraries - and best of all, deduplication of code. Think how bad it is today, there were dozens of different Visual C++ runtime libraries are installed on each ...


30

The other answers include a lot of sound historical information about how Windows evolved into its dominant role on PC's in both the home and business environment. But I think the most fundamental, simplest, "Occam's razor" answer is that consumers never had to make a choice. It was PC manufacturers that chose Windows as the default OS, not users and ...


21

For FTP, I think there are two factors here: The absence of multiplexing multiple data streams over a single transport connection, and The server-to-client connection for data transfer. The benefit of a dedicated transport connection for data transfer is that you can implement stream mode: the sender pours data bytes (and only data bytes) down the pipe, ...


16

I think the following early text editors meet your criteria: Brian Tolliver’s TVEdit (Stanford, 1965), based on Doug Engelbart’s earlier word processor; see On-line Text Editing: a Survey: TVEDIT is one of the earliest (1965) time-sharing, CRT-based text editors [12, 22]; it displays many lines of text at electronic speed. The user thus continually views ...


16

(I originally posted this as an answer to the similar question "why we need two connections between the ftp server and the ftp client" at StackOverflow) The decision to have separate control and data connections in FTP was taken at the Data and File Transfer Workshop at MIT on April 14-15, 1972. RFC310 "Another Look At Data And File Transfer Protocols" was ...


16

In the 1988 Report on the 65c832, Mensch described the 65c832 as a back-burner project with an uncertain timeline: Since WDC is not a gigantic conglomerate, it has limited resources. If all your manpower, time, and money are going towards the development of the 65c265, you don't have any left for the '832. That's exactly what was happening ...


15

For NFS (and portmapper), it's down to it being implemented as a SunRPC service. The whole idea is that you have your services randomly scattered on non-reserved ports, with the portmapper knowing where they are (by them registering on startup). This allows you to have only one fixed port, gets around the problem of needing to coordinate with a global body ...


15

It's great to look back at a technology developed nearly 30 years ago and say "whoa, those are poor design decisions". OLE, and then COM answered questions that were apparent in early Windows. In particular the first thing it attacked was the problem of "DLL Hell" and how to package components from multiple vendors that could be consumed by multiple ...


14

How exactly did Windows become the OS of the home PC? Is it true that the Windows OS, at it's core was originally designed to simply be the OS of the terminals of the windows server architecture. No. Windows started out as a GUI component of DOS - eventually hiding DOS beneath. Anything like a windows server architecture was only devloped way later. In ...


10

Microsoft's COM library storage was a poor use-case, and an even poorer implementation, of what was all the rage in academic computing research around that time - Object Storage. As you have noted, it sounds good in principle, but creates a host of new problems in real-world usage. This resulted in it being somewhat grotesque, in that it provided a "cure" ...


10

Delphi 1.0 was released Feb 14, 1995. By my (now somewhat foggy) recollection, research / experimentation that directly contributed to defining the Delphi visual development experience started around 1992. The research group included some folks who had previously worked at Xerox Parc Place on human-machine interface design and theory, as well as the Turbo ...


9

Short answer: to ensure smooth transition from COM-less OLE 1 to COM-based OLE 2. Slightly longer answer: the foundational use case for COM was OLE2. OLE2, as well as OLE1 before that, was based upon the idea that server applications register themselves in a common repository so that OLE client applications can find them without foreknowledge about the ...


7

I suppose you have heard of the draft datasheet of the 65832? https://downloads.reactivemicro.com/Electronics/CPU/W65C832%20CPU%20Datasheet%20v2.0.pdf Apple was the main customer of the 65816 (for Apple //gs) which needed to be compatible with 6502. They had no need of a 32bits version as Macintosh had already chosen the MC68000 family which is a sounder ...


7

There's actually pretty good information on the state of public access Unix systems in 80's and 90's in the form the "nixpub" list that was distributed on Usenet and other places. The earliest version I could find is from November 1987 and listed 35 sites: 11/22 206-863-0453 * Sumner WA 12 24 Tandy 6000 - XENIX * Micro ...


6

I doubt there is any Brand or Model to be found, as this is a middle of the road no name case, produced by some Asian, most likely Taiwanese, company, sold in bulk as commodity. These companies did never intend to build a brand at all as this would have worked against their sales. Even more so, these case manufacturers were often themself relying on random ...


6

The very name we have for one of the constructs -- "macro", short for "macroinstruction" -- comes from the assembly-language era, the prefix "macro" having its usual meaning (as a modifier) of something large, in this case larger than one instruction. A macroinstruction looks like an instruction in the assembly language, generally follows the same syntax ...


5

There is no other way to find it. The registry exists for COM. Other things use since Win 95. A COM server may be already running or on a different computer. There needs to be a way to tell programs where the files are and on what computer. ActiveX uses COM and is a type of COM server. It was also the marketing name for COM more generally but no longer. ...


5

I worked on some of that stuff at the time. Microsoft Transaction Server was a big deal and we used it in some major apps. By registering a DLLs interface in the registry, you did not need the physical file on your machine and could call into a library running on another machine. COM/DCOM was basically Microsoft's version of CORBA.


5

The history of windows goes back a long way. Windows 1.0 was released in 1985 and was simply a graphical interface for MS-DOS. This was neither revolutionary nor uniquely Microsoft, but a trend at that time. For example, GEOS appeared in 1986 and was the same thing for the C64. There was also GEM and a couple others. Since the development times on these ...


5

You might be interested to read about the oNLine-System developed throughout the 1960s and demonstrated by Douglas Engelbart in The Mother Of All Demos (demonstrated Dec 1968), which I believe contains real-time text editing.


5

Preprocessing is older than high-level languages. Macro systems came into use in the mid-1950s as ways to reduce the amount of assembler code that needed to be written and to make it easier to comply with programming standards. At first, pre-processors were separate programs, but they were followed by "macro-assemblers," which had built-in pre-processors, by ...


4

Here's a discussion on Vogons from a person called Firage with the same case. You might be able to get in touch with them via that site and ask.


4

Very little seems to be known about the SPC-650. Apparently it didn't sell well, and ZX Spectrum compatibles were on the whole pretty much overlooked in the far east, excepting Russia. There's a blog which appears to claim that it, and the other clones in the series, has some design and performance changes. It doesn't say what exactly, which makes me think ...


4

Using the many helpful comments given, and reviewing dealer pricing of the Apple II and II Plus in old issues of Byte magazine from 1979/80, I've come up with what I think is a reasonable explanation and timeline. The most important factor affecting the price of both Apple II models during the transition period of late 1979 and 1980 was the rapid decline in ...


4

At some point before 1990 the idea seems to have first surfaced as a 'report' about 6502 chronology and future processors might suggest. It includes not only information about the ghostly 6516, but also information about a 65832 which should have more features than the datasheet showed. There was also no substantial follow up. The project might have gotten ...


3

The PDP-1 was priced to be sold to a lab and was relatively easy to interface to. This means that it could be used for processing and displaying data from a variety of equipment such as mass spectrometers and so on. It was also used by ITEK for one of the very early CAD systems in 1964, the Electronic Drafting Machine (PDF warning). It could also be used as ...


3

To contradict the premise of your question, it was is not always necessary to use the registry in order to use COM. In-process COM objects are created by loading the DLL which implements them, calling DllGetClassObject (passing the GUID for the object) to obtain a factory object, and calling that factory object's CreateInstance method. If you know the ...


3

It wasn't all minicomputers and mainframes. I worked for a small consulting company in the late 1980s where, typically, four developers at any given time were logged on to the same desktop Unix box. The CPU (Motorola 68020) and main memory were all on a single, full-length ISA card that was plugged in to an IBM PC-AT. The Unix system used the PC as an I/O ...


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