New answers tagged

1

I'm only guessing, but I would guess in the late '70s and early '80s either RSTS/E for traditional timesharing use RSX-11M for real-time application use; maybe this transitioned to RSX-11M-Plus as larger memories became common I have no data for this, just an impression of what was going on in DEC while I was there. I'd be interested in numbers if ...


11

The phrase In some cases a sufficiently smart compiler could figure out some of these precedence relationships. was used in the 1979 book: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780120441204500088 Chapter 3 - SIMSCRIPT: PAST, PRESENT, AND SOME THOUGHTS ABOUT THE FUTURE HARRY M.MARKOWITZ Indicating that it predated Steele, and also that it ...


3

Were there any computers that did not support virtual memory? Yes, a great many. if yes, were these computers able to run multiple processes at the same time? Yes, if the operating system was designed for it and the programs were well-behaved. Generally, programs need to work when they're loaded at different locations in memory, they need to be able to ...


7

Most current microcontrollers Most microcontrollers have no support for virtual memory in hardware. Microcontrollers running Linux will have this supported in software, but microcontrollers are typically used more for real-time systems. As such, they will normally run an RTOS instead, or often will simply go straight for bare metal. Neither will use virtual ...


8

The Evolution of Lisp, an outline of the history, traces the phrase back to 1984. See page 42. https://www.scribd.com/document/62651058/The-Evolution-of-Lisp


8

The phrase any sufficiently advanced/smart/etc X in a technology context stems from (in other words, is a snowclone of) the Arthur C. Clarke's quote “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic” (1962 1973).


10

Preface: Reading question and comment, it feels as if there is a confusion between address translation and virtual addressing vs. memory protection and separate (process) address spaces. These are more or less independent issues. Address Translation is a mechanic to turn an address issued by a program into a real memory address to be used. There is no ...


22

The Amiga from Commodore shipped in October 1985 with a preemptive multitasking operating system designed to run many processes. The hardware lacked any support for virtual memory, and the Operating System never added it. As a multitasking system, it worked very well, especially measured against similarly priced competition that usually lacked this feature (...


10

For classic Macintosh system versions prior to system 7, all applications used physical memory accesses all the time. Multiple applications could be resident in memory because the address of every application instance's static data would be immutably determined before it launched, and the static data would include a jump table with an entry for every ...


22

There are three different concepts which may be bundled into the term "virtual memory", depending on whose definitions you prefer. Separation between program addresses and physical memory addresses. This can be as simple as datum and limit registers to relocate the program. Splitting of the program address space into pieces that can be ...


15

Based on your clarification from comments, “I mean when a process would want to access a memory address, it would access a virtual address, and then this virtual address would be translated into a physical address”, yes, there were computers that did not support virtual memory: any computer where addresses were used with no indirection. There are many ...


6

The PDP-8 did not have virtual memory — in the classic sense that there was no hardware page tables, no hardware page faults, no expandable virtual address space. The PDP-8 has 12-bit instruction size and 12 bit address space for 4k 12-bit words.  It was expanded with bank switching to hold up to 8 4k banks or 32k words total. Under TSS/8, the operating ...


3

The NSA used vector processing because it lets you parallelize attacks on a symmetric cipher. This is because a single instruction operates on multiple data in different vectors. As an example, COPACOBANA is a vector architecture that breaks DES by brute force, which is exactly how the NSA would have used a vector processor. However, this would still have ...


1

Some time in late 1985 or early 1986. If you went to an industry supplier like RS or Mouser, you could get a 286 as soon as it was available. But anyone who wanted more than the 8086 could offer tended to just use a 68k, which was simpler to interface, simpler to program and had of course been available for years. So there was not a lot of demand for the ...


13

Yes, it happened. MIPS I (R2000/R3000) did suffer from Load Delay Slots. In practice on R2000, on cache hit the next instruction would typically see the old value of the load-result register; on cache miss it would see the load result. So you couldn't usefully take advantage of it and there were no on-paper guarantees of anything, unlike on the Mill (*1). ...


1

CTSS at MIT was one of the first timesharing systems ever built. It ran on a modified IBM 7094 mainframe. This is from the 1963-1966 time frame. Memory protection was extremely primitive. There were two banks of memory, one for the system and the other for the current user. The user program could only clobber its own memory. Users could develop programs ...


2

Most large System/360 and System/370 installations were multiuser. I never saw a University whose S/360 or S/370 was not multiuser, and I never worked on a machine larger than a 360/50I that was not multiuser. CP-67, TSO and VM were common, to say nothing of the services running multi-user APL software. As for single threading command interpretation, that ...


7

Accident analysis includes the concept of the chain of events. The fundamental premise being that there's not usually just one mistake that leads to an accident. It usually takes several, and sometimes many mistakes, before an accident finally occurs. Likewise, it's oversimplistic to say that a game console failed solely because of one factor. The failure of ...


8

We can infer the price of one of the first ROM reading the agreement signed between the Japanese Nippon Calculating Machine (later Busicom) and Intel in February 1970 (available here). The agreement provided for manufacturing of a set of 4 chips: RAM, ROM, shift register, CPU (this was the famous Intel 4004, made by Federico Faggin). ROMs cost consisted of a ...


-2

This also may have a history with multi-byte vs. unicode character. Multi-byte was a stop-gap support for unicode a while back when uuencode was invented. Supporting multi-byte is not really needed unless you have some really old backups.


5

I don't know the total quantity of 'RAM' sold in those years, but according to this site the total number of DRAM chips and Bytes sold each year was:- Year million units GiB ---- ------------- ------- 1974 4.77 2.27 1975 23.15 11.04 1976 48.34 24.02 1977 80.79 49.88 1978 111.36 109....


14

Intel manufactured its 1-kilobit 1103 RAM on an 8 μm P-MOS process. Through most of the 1970s, DRAM was made from NMOS. The first successful CMOS memory was the Hitachi HM6147 SRAM, a 4-kilobit chip which used a 3 μm CMOS process. This was not the first 4-kb chip on the market (it was preceded by, among others, the Intel 2114 SRAM), but it’s more comparable ...


5

My recollection was that 4 kbit and 16 kbit DRAMS were being manufactured in volume around roughly circa same time frame as when 8 micron NMOS fabrication was common for other stuff. This web site seems to support that hypothesis: https://en.wikichip.org/wiki/8_µm_lithography_process


10

It was marketed as PONG (note the capitals) and can be seen (subject to current restrictions) at British retro preservation venues like the Centre for Computing History. http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/det/4007/Atari-PONG/


61

Pong. I've lived in the UK for many years and never heard it called Ping! That is news to me. Now, when talking about the video game called Pong, we call it Pong.


27

According to Atari co-founder Nolan Bushnell, Pong was marketed as "Ping" in the UK. He said so in this 1982 BBC interview ("because evidently Pong is not a good word in England"), and repeated it 16 years later in this interview with German online magazine Telepolis. If nothing else, Bushnell is probably the source of the story you heard....


3

Somewhat obscure but IDA Pro for DOS was using Turbo Vision Later the same TUI got ported to OS/2, Win32 console and Linux terminal and at one point even iPhone! The TVision version is still shipped today for Win32, Linux and macOS together with the default Qt GUI. Updated cross-platform TVision library source code is available for download.


1

Not an answer, really, but I would suppose that the name would have been seen as natural for Project MAC's goals. The name MAC, in one of its many interpretations, stood for "Multiple Access Computer". Computing as a utility, that is as a service, had been talked about at MIT from the beginning. John McCarthy used the term at least as early as 1961....


3

You have to appreciate that the vast bulk of software written in the world never sees the light of day outside of the business that created it. There are millions of programmers worldwide working every day on applications, yet we as the public see a small fraction of those applications. Most of the code is line of business back office work, software used for ...


20

The TLE instruction is a modification of the TLU instruction. TLU (Table LookUp) (Opcode 84) compared a word with a series of consecutive words on the drum and finished as soon as an entry was found being equal or higher. It was meant to find a point in a sorted list. TLE (Table Lookup Equal) (Opcode 63) is a modification of TLU stopping only when equal, ...


2

I don’t remember any major non-Borland software written using Turbo Vision either. I suspect that if there had been, it would have been listed in part 3 of the Turbo Vision FAQ, “Applications written with Turbo Vision”.


2

The Teletext standard, and the SAA5050 series character generators which supported it, were designed to provide a highly readable 40x25 text display on a PAL TV. The electronics had to be simple and cheap enough to integrate into consumer TVs, but also found their way into some microcomputers. Teletext support was insisted upon by the BBC when sponsoring ...


1

The Sinclair QL used a 5x9 pixel matrix in a 6x10 character cell in monitor mode, ending up with a 85x25 character screen.


1

The Sperry UTS-30 used a 10x16 font matrix on a 24 line by 80 column green screen. The UTS-60, a color variant, used a 9x15 matrix with the same screen dimensions. See Sperry UTS 4000 Universal Terminal System


Top 50 recent answers are included