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12

HP BASIC doesn't normally save programs in ASCII or any other character encoding. Instead it normally stores the program on disk using an internal representation (probably tokenized like other BASIC implementations). Any file in PROG format isn't in a format you can view in an editor. However HP BASIC does allow the saving a programs in ASCII format. From ...


12

In the early seventies, companies like HP and Wang sold 'programmable desktop calculators' that were really personal computers Not really, as they stood firmly on the calculator side. If at all, systems like the Cogar 4 and Datapoint 2200 are the origin of desktop computing. Complete units with a CPU, mass storage, CRT display and a full figured typewriter ...


10

The de facto – and indeed de jure – standard interface for computers controlling random equipment was RS-232. Some would argue with that, at least in certain industries — Hewlett-Packard’s HPIB (GPIB, IEE-488) was (and is) also commonly used to connect control and/or measurement equipment. It is simpler to implement than RS-232. So some early programmable ...


10

The easiest way is to get an external USB enclosure or USB-to-IDE adapter. IDE-to-SATA adapters exist, but they require opening up your computer to install. When selecting hardware, keep in mind that IDE (PATA) hard drives come in two common varieties: "desktop" (usually 3.5" form factor, with a 40-pin data cable and a 4-pin power cable), and "laptop" (...


9

The CPU in the 85 was the Capricorn, which was used for the Series 80 systems. The Wikipedia article linked there gives an overview of the CPU, and the July 1980 and August 1980 issues of HP Journal describe the HP-85 system in detail (including the LSI development process used for the chipset). The Series 80 web site has lots of information on the various ...


8

RS-232 became "standard peripheral interface" later, when most of these "peripheral devices" adopted microprocessors. In early days, parallel ports were more common because they: can read-write data from logic elements like latches and d-triggers can control state of output triggers and even relays Actually they were a window to real life for CPU's ...


8

In the original ARM instruction set there are no dedicated shift and roll instructions; instead the second operand of each instruction always passes through the barrel shifter, so shifts and rolls are always applied as prefixes to other operations. You can make the instruction a simple MOV to get the same result as a traditional shift or rotate operation. ...


7

Hewlett-Packard marketed some of their computers as calculators for some marketing related reason like you stated. Similarly, DEC called their computers "Programmable Data Processors", to avoid the "Big Expensive Machine" connotation that the word "computer" had at that time. Not in every country was it the same as in the West. In the Hungarian People's ...


6

Hewlett Packard in the 1980s-1990s had two divisions. The Calculator Division and the Computer Division. These two divisions each made their own products without reference to each other. The overlap started when the Calculator Division started to break out from just producing hand-held calculators and started producing products that were effectively Intel-...


6

AGL was an extension to BASIC and FORTRAN, which was implemented on several HP systems. It was used to describe what you wanted drawn, and the BASIC/FORTRAN system would generate HP-GL to drive a plotter. The most accessible manuals seem to be here. The HP-86/87 Plotter ROM Manual, describes the changes to the HP-86 BASIC when using a plotter. These don't ...


6

If you can get HPDrive working on a PC so that it can act a hard drive your HP 9000 model 310 computer then you should be able to use it's complementary utility HPDir to make an image of your HP 9133 drive. You'll need to a suitable HP-IB/IEEE-488 interface card for your PC for this work, but you'd also need such a card for HPDrive to work. Your specific ...


5

You can read the floppy in any FDD (mechanically compatible). The problem lies with FDC compatibility. Each FDC controller looks for a specific pattern on the track to find out where the sector starts are. Some FDCs are incompatible and when using the same floppy formatted on incompatible FDC then no matter what you do you can not read the data. For ...


5

(Some background: the 9122D uses Sony OA-D32W floppy drives. Here's a service manual and a discussion about repairing these drives.) If you want a perfect 1:1 image of the floppy disk at the magnetic level, you will need a KryoFlux or equivalent. Maybe this isn't necessary for your purposes. @wizzwizz4 provided instructions on using dd in Linux to create ...


5

The VAX, sold first in 1977, has a scaled indexed addressing mode, which offers indexReg*constScale+baseReg address computation.  When used with an LEA instruction (load effective address), this offers a shift and add. The 68020 (released 1984) introduced scaled indexed addressing mode, which when accomplishes indexReg*constScale + constOffset + ...


4

It's a very handy feature for linked lists (*1). One can access the last entry of a linked list in a single machine instruction, as if it was used directly. Examples: Lets assume a list of blocks, where data always has to be added to the last one - like in a high throughput logging, where one (or more) tasks add data and another one writes it to disk. ...


4

Assuming that you have used a standard DOS file system: Remove the first floppy disk from the drive. Put the floppy disk in your modern 3.5" floppy reader. Connect your modern floppy reader to a computer with dd installed - probably a GNU/Linux distro. Run the command: dd if=/dev/fd0 of=~/floppy.img Repeat once from 2. with the second floppy disk, ...


4

I bought a IDE to USB converter from a local store.There were two extra pins on my hard drive so I had to do some fiddling and connect the AC power supply I connected the adapter to my Linux laptop (also works on Windows) and I could see the files stored on the FAT32 filesystem. The disk is almost full (The thing is 4GB and has 100MB left , my laptop has ...


3

From a quick Google, looks like it was shared by the HP 83. The instruction set can be found here: http://www.series80.org/PDFs/HP85-Assembler.pdf Another link I found: http://www.hpmuseum.org/cgi-sys/cgiwrap/hpmuseum/archv013.cgi?read=47629


2

This answer is not quite about retrocomputing, but anyway... They are making them, though it is a bit of a niche market. One of the newer ones (designed by the original Psion designer!) is the Gemini PDA, running Android (and some rudimentary Linux support), trying to spiritually continue the Psion experience (at least from their PR standpoint), and the ...


2

On the issue of qwerty keyboards on handhelds, I sympathise with you entirely (as the owner of a Nokia N900 and a Blackberry KeyOne). Looking at a modern smartphone as the nearest equivalent of a handheld PC, a physical keyboard competes with the screen for space on the front of the device. If one generalises that most people consume more media on their ...


2

I don't know how 'early' this is, but in 1990, the HP48 series had built in RS232. In addition to the IR used by the immediately preceding HP28, there was also a four pin serial connector on the device. With the right kind of cable, this would provide up to 9600bps to another RS232 device. At the time, HP also sold a companion PC connection kit that that ...


1

Taking a look at the Wikipedia article, it's pretty clear what the indirection bit was for: to access memory that was not in the current or zero pages (the current page was taken from the program counter register, and you chose which page to access with a page indicator.) It also appears that the HP 1000 didn't have a stack register, so procedure calls used ...


1

I'm not familiar with the HP/1000, so if you get an answer from someone with specific knowledge, you should accept that one. However: In thirty-six years of programming, I have never heard of a situation where that feature would be particularly useful. On the other hand, I have seen a tendency of good engineers to reflexively generalize, i.e. to follow an ...


1

This drive uses the IEEE-488 (aka GPIB) protocol. You can make a USB adapter for this, then use a virtual COM port to communicate with the drive. I haven't found information about the specific API - these varied between different GPIB devices.


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