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In this article, it states: In nearly every case it’s flame retardants. Although plastics can yellow in the absence of flame retardant chemicals, the chemicals accelerate the process when exposed to heat, oxygen, and ultraviolet rays. The process of the plastic reacting with the heat, oxygen, and UV rays makes the plastic yellow. Flame retardants (very ...


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There are several simple precautions that are always worth taking when powering up a vintage microcomputer after long periods of storage or non-use. The minimum, simple steps, should include: Place the computer on an electrically safe workbench, preferably one that includes a grounding strap for the user. A wooden table is an OK substitute, just avoid ...


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Ideally you should clean the drive read/write head(s) with a cotton swab dipped in 90+% cleaning alcohol (e.g. isopropyl). The aim is to leave nothing on the head - dirt, cotton, nor cleaner residue. The Apple II drive head is quite hardy, and there are legends of people in a pinch cleaning it with a T-shirt - which I do not recommend unless your need is ...


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It's safer to turn them on and off from time to time. The most problematic components are electrolytic capacitors, especially the aluminium types which have been used plentiful in old computers. These parts lose their formation when not turned on from time to time, meaning the aluminium oxide between the contacted sheets gets thinner and thinner. This ...


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You can find a list of capacitors and other analog board components here: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/132RwzC8HM5ask-BdY_31txErOCwJDSkz099GY2XLpE0/edit?hl=en&hl=en#gid=0 This list is maintained by James Wages. The analog boards for the 128k, 512k, and Plus are compatible with 3 different revisions. Digikey part numbers for replacement parts ...


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Assuming the yellowing isn't caused by nicotine, if you're a smoker, usually it's because of UV light interacting with flame retardants (usually bromine) in the plastic of the device's case. UV exposure can be from sun or fluorescent lights - the yellowing plastic isn't picky about the UV source. I'm not aware of it being solved in modern plastics.


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Search the web for the term "Retrobrite" or "Retr0bright". You will also find numerous sources (including YouTube) for recipes and how-to's using OxyClean and other sodium percarbonate-based products which yield hydrogen peroxide in solution or in a paste form. These techniques are very popular for whitening cases with the Apple ][ and Atari communities. ...


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For the keyboard itself: Undo the screws from the bottom of the case. Lift the top of the case gently off. Disconnect the ribbon cables from the keyboard (CAREFUL fragile) Slide out the keyboard. Insert the new one and attach the ribbon cables. Clip the case back together and do up the screws For the membrane: Prise the top off the case - early models ...


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As someone who owns around 70 vintage computers (8/16 bit), leaky caps are a big concern for me. In my experiences, batteries leak far more often than capacitors. Obviously, electrolytic capacitors can, and often do, leak. Companies like Commodore didn't exactly use high quality parts. So the shelf life for those electrolytic caps isn't long. Yet, I ...


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This clearly needs a "depends" answer. There are known places where I wouldn't even dare to switch on a computer without replacing caps first - The Sinclair ZX Spectrum series is such a candidate - It features an analogue voltage step-up circuit for the memory supply voltage generation that is known to be able to simply fry all of your otherwise perfectly ...


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As has been mentioned already, the most common reason is flame retardants. I've found that the easiest way to restore the original color is hydrogen peroxyde + UV light (either from the Sun or from an UV lamp). Some time ago I restored an MSX turbo R and documented the process, including whitening the case and keyboard. Here's the link.


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In my experience, just about any rubber band can be used, in a pinch, to replace a belt as long as you make it snug, but not too snug. I'm talking about those centimeter or more wide rubber bands they use on newspapers and the like. I repaired a VCR using the rubber band around a stalk of celery. Again, these are for "in a pinch," and you might be able to ...


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Handling of 80s machines is not different from any modern computer: Keep 'em in average humidity and remove accumulated lint once in a while. Not smoking is also a plus. Not so much because of appearance, but cigarette smoke contains a lot of oily and sticky substances that build up layers inside that reduce airflow and seal off chips. In fact, old ...


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Depending on how bad the corrosion is, various techniques can work. First, just try plain old water (or better yet, isopropyl alcohol) and a cotton bud - on the cartridges and the Game Boy itself. Failing that, try the same technique with distilled (white) vinegar. If all else fails - very carefully rubbing with a fine-grit sandpaper can help to remove ...


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In general, the IIgs was designed to have a full house in regards to expansion cards, just like every other member of the expansion slot Apple II family. There are guidelines for how much power a card can draw. However, there are not guidelines how how much heat a card can produce. Despite this, I'm not aware of any expansion cards from the era that produced ...


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I have seen this happen on several Nintendo systems: Back in the days of the G&W games, they were putting a rather thick polarizing layer in front of the LCD screen and not gluing it. At some point, they started to use thinner films and then glue them to the screen and, in some cases, the glue produces some gas and it can bubble. I am not sure why it ...


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There are basically two distinct "tell-tales" for electrolytic capacitor leakage: Bulging pressure release plates at the top of the capacitor, with possible signs of leakage emanating from there. Fishy odor. Absent both of those indicators, I'm inclined to think the staining of the PCB is from another source. Also, the electrolyte from the caps is highly ...


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I used the method outlined here by Javier Rivera on my Apple IIc Plus and it worked fine. Javier does a lot of RetroBrite projects and posts a number of results to the Apple II Enthusiasts Facebook group. He also gave a presentation on methods at KansasFest 2015 and did a live session with anyone who wanted to go through the process with him. http://www....


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Well in the mid 80'ies the common i8080 based computers in my region, like PMD85, had a lot of IC sockets which tend to jump the ICs out of it slightly causing instabilities of the computer. So the routine was to take all the ICs from their sockets and push them back in. That also removed some oxidation from the pins and the computer would work again for at ...


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What is the optimal way a typical home user can store all these items, on display, to preserve them in their current state for future generations? Keep them in low temperature, dry and dark conditions. Low temperature in this context means around 15 to 20 °C. Dry condition means a humidity of 50-55%. Dark is relative, here a low UV is most important. ...


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For older hardware, leave it on. Moving parts can be fixed or replaced. The problem comes from wear to non-moving parts: the circuits inside the microchips. This wear takes two forms: thermal fatigue causing irregularities at the edges of the chips to grow into cracks that will eventually cross something critical, and electromigration of chip elements ...


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I have used recipes from here with great success: http://www.retr0bright.com/make.html I used the second recipe with a high concentration hydrogen peroxide. I was able to find the high concentration hydrogen peroxide at a local co-op store marked as "food grade". Here is that recipe: Lorne's Variant Recipe Lorne at Vintage Computer Forums prefers ...


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I am thinking of collecting Super Famicon/SNES games but one thing holding me back is the integrity of the cartridges. There must be two grades to the collecting: (1) collecting original hardware and (2) collecting original hardware which functions. How long will the console itself last before it is beyond repair? As you already said it is mostly ...


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Degradation may be initiated or accelerated by numerous factors including ultra-violet light, visible light, ozone, pollutants, manufacturing additives, oxygen, heat, or by carton storage without protective liners. As mentioned in other answers, one of those "manufacturing additives" is flame retardants. Also, make sure the storage room is well ...


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Your capacitors are definitely bad, you should get that goo off of the board asap, however the damage may already be done. you might consider using a tooth brush while you're at it I've washed boards and powered them up same day after drying them with a heat gun, but be careful, a heat gun will melt stuff if you leave it in one place for too long. Another ...


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I recently cleaned my amiga 3000 main board using denatured alcohol and q-tips. It took a few sessions over the course of a few days, but the board looks brand new. Of course, you have to be careful around stickers or possible sharpie marker writing, or wax pencil marks... but if you take your time the results can really be astounding.


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As the Osborne is a pretty standard CP/M machine, any CP/M software will do, so look out for CP/M users (/groups) - there are plenty. In Europe especially, since the Amstrad CPC series gave CP/M a late boost. Just keep working copies of the OS to boot. Disks can still be bought new and properly stored drives will surely work for a few more decades. Also, ...


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The board looks like pressboard, which is essentially cardboard, and liquids don't do that any good. Clean the switches on the front, and the area at the crystal at the left back first. If that fixes the glitches, don't clean the other parts.


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Replacement cables are available from Unicomp (https://www.pckeyboard.com/) but you might not be able to get a coiled cord in the 'permanently attached' variant. They do appear to have coiled cords of the 'detachable' type, but you would need the corresponding socket on your keyboard (it looks vaguely like an RJ45 connector, but with plastic tangs on both ...


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