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33

Xerox developed ethernet. Was there a local area network preceding ethernet? There was certainly wide area networking before ethernet, e.g. ARPANET dating from 1969. There was also local networking even earlier, e.g. the IBM 1401, sold as a small mainframe in its own right, also ended up being used as a peripheral controller for larger mainframes; this ...


30

It appears to be a legacy from TOPS-10. The easy part: octal was more popular in the 60s and 70s in general, but especially at DEC, which produced a number of 18-bit machines; the 3 bits per symbol divides 18 bits evenly, but the 4 bits per symbol of hex doesn't. CompuServe's beginnings weren't as a bulletin board or ISP, but as a general-purpose ...


30

The first standard specifying modern TCP is RFC793 from 1981 (with predecessors dating back to 1974), which says about initial sequence number selection: To avoid confusion we must prevent segments from one incarnation of a connection from being used while the same sequence numbers may still be present in the network from an earlier incarnation. ...


28

The "Amiga Client Software for Novell Netware v1.4" (official name) was created in 1992 by Oxxi. It is available as a set of six(6) floppy disk images most places where Amiga abandon-ware is found. For instance, it can be found in the TOSEC Amiga archive. Commodore Amiga [TOSEC v2012-04-10]/Applications/[ADF]/Commodore Amiga - Applications - [ADF] (TOSEC-...


25

One prime example is the Econet networking system designed by Acorn Computers. Best known for their BBC Microcomputer and Archimedes systems, Acorn started with a range of modular rack-based expandable computers known as the System range, released from 1979 onwards. These machines were aimed at serious hobbyists, researchers, and industrial users, and could ...


23

In order to load files from the SYS volume NetWare needs to have a device driver for the kind of disk your SYS volume lives on. Considering that you might put your SYS volume on an MFM drive, or RLL, or ESDI, or SCSI, or IDE, or any of a variety of different RAID controllers, we are talking about a lot of different devices your bootloader needs to be able ...


20

Yes. For example, the Xircom PE3-10BT is a parallel port adapter that allows an RJ45 connector be plugged into it. You don't get full 10 Mbps with it, but it works. Mine is powered via a PS/2 port passthrough plug and jack. I use mine with my 386 laptop.


16

It's called a #-literal. It's basically an Internet host number (IP address) written as a decimal number and it's been obsolete for almost as long as the Internet has existed. The current version of the SMTP protocol - RFC5321 (appendix F.4) - states it as being deprecated and it must not be used. RFC 821 provided for specifying an Internet address as a ...


14

Did people back then build supercomputers out of multiple smaller ones? What smaller ones? But there have been multiprocessor systems. For one, multi processor systems have been around since the late 1960s. For example the IBM /370-168 could be ordered with a second processor unit. It was a for all computing parts symmetric, except only the first CPU ...


14

Preface: As with many early questions, it's up to the definition of network. It might be helpful not to tie this too close to our modern understanding of a connection between (mostly) equal peers. Well known networks on the micro/home computer side may be of course Acorns Econet introduced with the Atom in 1981 Sinclair's ZX-Net introduced with the ...


14

No, this has nothing to do with any networks; the "INT" stands for "integrator." That panel and the adjacent one to the right are the interface to an integrator/memory module: Integrators in analogue computers are used to measure quantity over time, basically a sort of sum function. You can find more pictures of the modules on The Analog Computer Museum's ...


13

It is not actually required that the TCP initial sequence number be random. It would be more correct to say that it is chosen arbitrarily, or to put it another way, that there is no rule specifying how the starting value must be chosen. This means that it can start at 0 for every connection, or at any other number. That same starting value can be used for ...


13

If you have another computer to hook it up to and act as a bridge (or router), you could in principle run SLIP or PPP over the serial port to another machine. You're unlikely to get speeds exceeding 100 kb/s.


12

As far as I can see, RFC 1700 doesn’t define “network byte order” as a phrase; it specifies the order of transmission of bytes (or octets) on the network, as done previously in the RFCs it obsoletes (going at least as far back as RFC 990 in November 1986). As I understand it, “network byte order” is just the order of bytes on the network, which depends on ...


11

DECnet is more of a protocol suite than a physical hardware standard. So asking what kind of physical connector it uses is kind of like asking what kind of physical connector TCP/IP uses -- the answer is, it uses whatever connector you need to use for the particular data link layer you're running DECnet on top of. If you are running DECnet over Ethernet, ...


11

There are two sides to getting this sorted: the drivers for the device, and then the networking protocol you're going to use. But the archive PCMPC100.EXE seems to have most of what you'll require. Drivers MS-DOS doesn't have any native support for PCMCIA cards, so you'll want to load a card enabler for your Etherfast. You'll find a copy of it in the ...


11

Xerox developed the Ethernet, which is a LAN, but most likely not the first LAN.


11

Since it's a pretty early laptop without a PCMCIA port, there won't be a way to add an Ethernet port. Your best approach is to use the serial port to connect via null-modem cable to a modern machine that either has an RS-232 serial port, or has hardware and drivers for bridging its USB port to RS-232 serial. Once the two are connected, use of the laptop as a ...


9

Econet networking was first developed for Acorn's System line, which had a 6502 CPU clocked at 1MHz. It was later used in their ARM-based Archimedes machines with 8-25MHz CPUs, as well as the RISC PC line which pushed into the hundreds of MHz. So the system clock clearly doesn't need to be identical for all stations on the network. There is, however, ...


9

From Network World: NetWare never ran on top of DOS. A server was booted to DOS solely to run the NetWare boot loader (a DOS program). It didn't need to do that, it could have booted directly but that would have required Novell to build its own BIOS loader to initialize all of the hardware. The NetWare designers felt that there was no need to ...


8

Microsoft didn’t take over Winsock. Winsock, the Windows socket API, is a socket API (similar to BSD sockets) which was designed by a number of engineers (including two from Microsoft) following a bird-of-a-feather session at fall 1991 Interop conference, and released in mid-1992. Trumpet Winsock is an implementation of a TCP/IP stack (including SLIP and PPP ...


8

In Econet, using synchronous serial transmission, the sender provides the clock together with the data. The receivers need to synchronize with that clock. And the network clock doesn't (necessarily, although it might be somehow derived from the same clock) need to be connected in any way with the system clock. In the BBC Micro, this clock (and the whole ...


8

A bit of web searching finds a site offering it. I have no idea if the site is legitimate or safe.


7

Simply because DEC used octal representation of binary values, where IBM (and later micros) used hex. The PDP-10 used an 18 bit address and half word as smalest computational unit (the machine had 36 bit words). 18 Bits can be represented as 6 octal digits. So here you are. They just followed that scheme.


7

Sinclair's ZX network was implemented in both the ZX Spectrum (with Interface 1) and the Sinclair QL - Some QL compatibles that came later implemented it as well. It was a serial multidrop network with max. 64 devices on the line and advertised 100kbps transfer rate (measurements show it actually uses a bit rate of 87.5 kbps) that was bit-banged by the CPU ...


7

Research Machines in the UK had the Z-NET network which was used with their 380Z, 480Z, Nimbus 186 and Nimbus AX/VX computers, starting in the early 80s. It was CSMA/CD over coaxial cable/BNC at 800kbps, later 2Mbps, using Microsoft's MS-NET operating system to run a fileserver. This was based on the Zilog Z8530 SCC - it appears to be a product of Zilog (...


7

In 1984-86, I installed several Digital Microsystems (DMS) HiNet networks in the UK. This was an RS422 bus system running at 512 kb/s in a master/slave polling configuration. The original server had an 8" hard drive and an 8" floppy drive, running a CP/M-based operating system. A later version was 8088-based with 5 1/4" disk and diskette. The workstations ...


7

In 1968 or so the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, with several hundred terminals and at least four "host" computers (running applications), all communicating via a central PDP-6, decided to move to a distributed networking system with more direct connections between the computers, the PDP-8 terminal concentrators and peripheral systems. This was documented in ...


7

The way I interpret Bob Metcalfe's words in this interview, the Xerox team used a Data General local area network prior to the work on the Alto, for which Ethernet was invented. And we started working on this personal computer and I started working on how to network them together. And the predecessor system that we had also built used Nova 800s, a ...


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