47

@user253751 and @WimC are correct, this fade is achieved by drawing a semi-transparent rectangle over the screen, but using a transparency mode where the rectangle's color is subtracted from the color of the background. The PS1 has four semi-transparency modes (search this for "Semi Transparency"). The one used here is mode 2 in which the result of ...


30

The SNES hardware doesn’t implement perspective, it implements affine transforms of the background layer. Affine transforms aren’t sufficient for perspective. Perspective is implemented by changing the affine transform at every scanline, to change the scale. This is what allows parallel lines to be transformed so that they aren’t parallel on-screen, thus ...


18

You don’t need two buffers at 640x480 because television is interlaced — each field is only 640x240; if you can render at 60Hz then you can always draw the next field while the current is being output and therefore maintain proper even/odd sampling positions for a genuine interlaced signal. This is even a better solution than a 640x480 buffer because it ...


16

This effect happens when the luminosity curve of the image is adjusted like so: This is called gamma correction and is a fairly common feature of graphics processing software and GPUs. My research has not turned up anything to suggest that the PS1 supports this feature natively in hardware, although it can be emulated in software fairly easily.


13

The following answer is only my personal point of view I don't believe that Sony created a C library that was slow on purpose. They created a C library so developers use high-level interface which respects the way to access the hardware, instead of documenting it in details. Respecting/checking the hardware usage domain and timings (and also using C) has an ...


11

Probably because it was the only way to get 100% compatibility with the old software library, which was required while most PS2 titles weren't developped yet. Noone wants to buy a machine without games, and noone wants to upgrade and lose the ability to play old games. Note like console makers have a "all or nothing" way of handling the compability. For ...


11

There can't be a simple answer, as there are many ways to reach that effect depending on console/hardware used. Using some 'overlay' needs incredible computing power and is usually tied to rather high end 3D engines. A way simpler method is cycling/dampening the colours. Here each colour used is replaced by a dimmer variant. An effect that is already easy ...


8

Firstly, on the "difficulty" of programming a teleport routine: Teleporting an NPC when it gets stuck is actually a relatively straight-forward task to achieve. Identifying when an NPC has gotten caught is simple: you can calculate the Euclidian distance between the NPC and the player, and if it exceeds some threshold X, then you conclude that the ...


8

Sony claims that it sold 102.4 million PlayStations. The best reported number I can find is that a total of 962 million games were sold. So that's an average of about 9.4 games per machine sold, with the best selling single title being Gran Turismo at 10.85 million (i.e. 10.6% as many copies sold as systems). I couldn't find any further breakdown on that — e....


8

Different BIOS versions have different built-in user interfaces for managing the memory card and playing audio CDs. There doesn't seem to be any consistency in dates or regions to indicate one style was newer or older, looking at Wikipedia's list of PS1 variations. From The Cutting Room Floor's page on the PlayStation: System Menu Differences and ...


8

What "prevents" it is the same thing that prevents graphics cards on modern PCs from running independently: there's simply no benefit to adding what would be needed to make them independent computers, and doing so what compromise the job that they're designed for. The Cell Broadband Engine consists of one or more Power PC cores (Power Processor Elements or ...


7

The data here is a bit unclear what the mentioned measurement of 'hits' is about and where the percentage of 5 or 50 comes from. The whole setup doesn't give much information. Lets try to see what it could mean in relation to real world numbers. CD-Drives are usually not rated in 'hits' but MTBF hours, like most machinery, often amplified by duty ...


7

For the PlayStation 1, development was done on a development kit which fit inside a PC; this included two ISA cards, and had 8 MiB of RAM for the PlayStation CPU. Pre-production testing was done on debugging consoles, which were closer to the production hardware, and only had 2 MiB of RAM. SN Systems (which designed the development kit) also produced a ...


6

The initial versions of the CPU and GPU above were over 200 mm², which is quite large. Conjecture: making them initially a single chip would have resulted in substantially diminished yield. Being already at the upper end what can be done A Pentium III (Coppermine) of that time had about 10M transistors and ~100 mm², so a die with more than 200 mm² was most ...


5

For one thing, fixed point is not necessarily cheaper to calculate than floating point, e.g. 32-bit fixed-point multiply actually costs more than 32-bit floating point multiply: https://electronics.stackexchange.com/questions/368862/transistor-count-of-floating-point-multiplier The conclusion is only true when accepting a good amount of restrictions, wich ...


5

what exactly stops them being fully autonomous? Nothing - except for the way any tight coupled multicore CPU starts up. After reset only the primary core starts executing code, while the rest is kept in a hold state, until prepared and released by the primary core. Further any control about the configuration can (usually) only be exerted by the primary core....


4

Firstly, I haven't found any anecdotes of Crash Bandicoot causing premature drive failure in PlayStations. While this mostly answers the basic question, it leads to the obvious question of why. It certainly is true that Crash Bandicoot did rely on streaming data from the CD whenever the player moved through the level; the whole level simply wouldn't fit in ...


3

For PC VGA, which definitely has just 256 colours on screen that are picked from the 16 million available via a look up table, such fades are definitely done by changing just the palette definition every 0.1 seconds or something like that. If you do it naively, you just substract a fixed value from each R, G, B component on each frame. The consequence is ...


3

If many game developers exploit some particular hardware quirk, then any hardware revision which changes the behavior of that quirk would risk incompatibility with those games. If there are only a small number of games that exploit the quirk, however, and their development teams coordinate their efforts with the console maker, then it may be possible for ...


2

Yes, the PlayStation 1 CPU had a 32-bit data bus, and RAM was always 32 bits wide, spread over one or more chips. However, there were at least three major revisions of the Playstation 1 hardware and more than half a dozen different mainboards spread across a lot of different models. Information on the earlier models is hard to find. The GameSX wiki ...


2

One possible reason could be the production discard: Let's assume 1 of 1000 CPUs produced is defective and the same is the case for the GPUs. Then 1000 of one million ICs are defective when producing the ICs separately. If you place the CPU and the GPU on the same IC, there are: One IC in one million that have both a defective CPU and a defective GPU 999 ...


1

To develop two parts separately is much easier than to develop one big IC. You can use two less or more independent teams. The developing cycle is cheaper and faster with smaller chips. Once the designs are settled, you can start to manufacture prototypes or the first series, and the "integration process" can run in the background.


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