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26

The History section of the Wikipedia Virtual Memory page seems to have the details of this: The concept of virtual memory was first developed by German physicist Fritz-Rudolf Güntsch at the Technische Universität Berlin in 1956 in his doctoral thesis, Logical Design of a Digital Computer with Multiple Asynchronous Rotating Drums and Automatic High Speed ...


12

TL;DR: It's about the viewpoint these functions were designed. Command line is all about interaction Programming is about deferred execution As a result command/statement names were picked to reflect either viewpoint The long read: The function is unrelated to echoing, which is about reflecting input (possibly modified) to output But that's exactly ...


12

IBM's original virtual memory machine was the System/360 Model 67, released in 1965, which was a variant of the Model 65 modified to add the address translation logic necessary to add virtual memory support. So virtual memory support at least predates the System/370 by that much. References: http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/360/funcChar/GA27-2719-2_360-...


8

In support of your CTSS suggestion, see this document, in particular page 11, which describes clock-trap handling. A clock interrupt can cause a program swap, thus multiprogramming with preemption. This does not itself prove that CTSS was first, but it is strong evidence. For cooperative multiprogramming, the British were likely near the forefront. The '...


6

RFC565 identifies NIC 8208 as: Computer Corporation of America, Datacomputer Project Working Paper No. 3, Datalanguage, 29 Oct '71, 78 pp. A copy of this document is available in the online repository of the US DoD's Defense Technical Information Center in a pdf document titled "Semi-Annual Technical Report, March 1972". Working Paper No. 3 is bundled with ...


4

Let me introduce yet another supplier of a Virtual Memory System. Tens of thousands of programmers (I'm guessing here) used VAX's VMS, which allowed RAM to be swapped in and out for temporary storage on disc. The PDP 11, which used VMS, sold over 600,000 units from the early 1970s until the 90s. Research on this machine is easy because so many people used ...


3

The ASCII standard doesn’t explain how it was constructed, but Charles E. Mackenzie’s Coded Character Sets, History and Development does. Section 14.9 covers control characters. When building the 1963 version of the standard, a number of control characters were deemed essential for transmission control, and these were placed in the code space in such a way ...


2

I'd suggest that the fact that there are two different "VM" interpretations muddies the water. Burroughs et al. had "virtual memory" implemented by transparent swapping between core and disk. The IBM 370 had "virtual machines" allowing multiple operating systems to be run on the same physical hardware (i.e. a single copy of CP hosting multiple copies of CMS)...


1

For the Librascope/Royal Precision/General Precision computers, i.e. the LGP-30 and its little and big brothers (LGP-21 and RPC-4000), the actual data transmission is 6 bit parallel. Two sets of 6 data lines, to and from the Flexowriter respectively. This is complemented by a handful of handshake and sync signals, to indicate that characters are available, ...


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