26

The transform applied to project geometry from 3d to the 2d coordinates necessary for drawing on a screen is called a perspective projection. It involves calculating 1/z and multiplying x and y by that. Filling a triangle involves visiting every pixel within it and deciding which colour to put there. To paint a texture that properly obeys perspective you'd ...


16

Just a disclaimer: Most of this is based on observation and assumptions from experience and should be taken with a grain of salt. From what I've seen with this glitch, the audio being played is actually just a very stretched out version of the chimes that play over the second logo which you see when a disc is loaded, rather than a separate sample. Judging ...


14

I'd be likely to endorse the verdict that Ken Kutaragi designed it alone. Kutaragi designed the SPC700, the sound processor used in the SNES. Like any other moderately advanced sound processor, it is part DSP — amongst other things, it contains the logic to pitch shift an audio sample, which pretty much means taking a 1d signal of m samples across and using ...


13

The following answer is only my personal point of view I don't believe that Sony created a C library that was slow on purpose. They created a C library so developers use high-level interface which respects the way to access the hardware, instead of documenting it in details. Respecting/checking the hardware usage domain and timings (and also using C) has an ...


11

The first generation of consoles use proprietary APIs; I can speak directly as to the PS1. In the PS1's case there's a vector coprocessor for performing 3d transformations and one is subsequently responsible for compiling and supplying list of triangles in direct screen coordinates for drawing. Usually calculated via the vector coprocessor, but it's up to ...


10

Probably because it was the only way to get 100% compatibility with the old software library, which was required while most PS2 titles weren't developped yet. Noone wants to buy a machine without games, and noone wants to upgrade and lose the ability to play old games. Note like console makers have a "all or nothing" way of handling the compability. For ...


8

Different BIOS versions have different built-in user interfaces for managing the memory card and playing audio CDs. There doesn't seem to be any consistency in dates or regions to indicate one style was newer or older, looking at Wikipedia's list of PS1 variations. From The Cutting Room Floor's page on the PlayStation: System Menu Differences and ...


8

What "prevents" it is the same thing that prevents graphics cards on modern PCs from running independently: there's simply no benefit to adding what would be needed to make them independent computers, and doing so what compromise the job that they're designed for. The Cell Broadband Engine consists of one or more Power PC cores (Power Processor Elements or ...


8

There was a relationship between Sony and Nintendo starting in 1988 and into the early 1990s as someone in Sony was looking to get into the video game business after seeing how successful the Famicom was. Agreements were made with Nintendo to produce a CD-ROM technology add-on and work was started. Prototypes were demonstrated in the early 90s which were ...


8

There's a pretty nifty article linked from the Wikipedia article on the Emotion Engine that discusses the details in the "Emotion Is the Difference" section on page 2: But much of the EE’s compute power will go toward an even loftier goal: behavioral synthesis, or, as SCE calls it, emotion synthesis. This technology gives game programmers the ability ...


8

I bet you have a dirty lens or faulty optical drive. Try cleaning the diode with a Q-Tip and a electronic lens cleaning solution. It's also possible that the entire drive is broken or dirty. Does the PS1 read any other discs like audio CDs? It might need an entire spindle hub or optical drive replacement. Maybe some of the tips in this iFixit ...


7

The data here is a bit unclear what the mentioned measurement of 'hits' is about and where the percentage of 5 or 50 comes from. The whole setup doesn't give much information. Lets try to see what it could mean in relation to real world numbers. CD-Drives are usually not rated in 'hits' but MTBF hours, like most machinery, often amplified by duty ...


7

For the PlayStation 1, development was done on a development kit which fit inside a PC; this included two ISA cards, and had 8 MiB of RAM for the PlayStation CPU. Pre-production testing was done on debugging consoles, which were closer to the production hardware, and only had 2 MiB of RAM. SN Systems (which designed the development kit) also produced a ...


7

Those companies did implement their own graphics APIs that were very light weight and didn't have too much complex functionality. This was done because their libraries could be tailored to the strengths or weaknesses of their system. They also had very unique architectures that took different approaches to producing 3D graphics. Later on, consoles and PC ...


6

The CPU core is only one of eight parts of the chip. It has two vector units, an image processor, DMA controller and various other components. Together they form the Emotion Engine, which I recall at the time being marketed as bringing procedural generation technology to games to make them more realistic and varied.


6

I found two neat pictures that show the pin order on the AV out port and the AV cable. From the left in the bottom picture, pin 2 is the right audio channel and pin 4 is the left channel. Source


5

The initial versions of the CPU and GPU above were over 200 mm², which is quite large. Conjecture: making them initially a single chip would have resulted in substantially diminished yield. Being already at the upper end what can be done A Pentium III (Coppermine) of that time had about 10M transistors and ~100 mm², so a die with more than 200 mm² was most ...


5

what exactly stops them being fully autonomous? Nothing - except for the way any tight coupled multicore CPU starts up. After reset only the primary core starts executing code, while the rest is kept in a hold state, until prepared and released by the primary core. Further any control about the configuration can (usually) only be exerted by the primary core....


4

Firstly, I haven't found any anecdotes of Crash Bandicoot causing premature drive failure in PlayStations. While this mostly answers the basic question, it leads to the obvious question of why. It certainly is true that Crash Bandicoot did rely on streaming data from the CD whenever the player moved through the level; the whole level simply wouldn't fit in ...


3

If many game developers exploit some particular hardware quirk, then any hardware revision which changes the behavior of that quirk would risk incompatibility with those games. If there are only a small number of games that exploit the quirk, however, and their development teams coordinate their efforts with the console maker, then it may be possible for ...


3

But the first systems didn't run an OS like that? Well, they did, some kind of proprietary OS. So how graphics were programmed to these machines? Using functions of said OS, or bare bone. Did the companies developed and implemented their own graphics APIs (like OpenGL)? Exactly. Just usually a lot less advanced than that. It might be useful to keep ...


2

Yes, the PlayStation 1 CPU had a 32-bit data bus, and RAM was always 32 bits wide, spread over one or more chips. However, there were at least three major revisions of the Playstation 1 hardware and more than half a dozen different mainboards spread across a lot of different models. Information on the earlier models is hard to find. The GameSX wiki ...


2

One possible reason could be the production discard: Let's assume 1 of 1000 CPUs produced is defective and the same is the case for the GPUs. Then 1000 of one million ICs are defective when producing the ICs separately. If you place the CPU and the GPU on the same IC, there are: One IC in one million that have both a defective CPU and a defective GPU 999 ...


1

To develop two parts separately is much easier than to develop one big IC. You can use two less or more independent teams. The developing cycle is cheaper and faster with smaller chips. Once the designs are settled, you can start to manufacture prototypes or the first series, and the "integration process" can run in the background.


1

I would recommend getting decent PS2 cable with RF shielding. I had the same issue when connected to TV, even though console's audio was muted.


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